International Auxiliary Language Association
Personas eminente detra le creation de interlingua Directores de IALA in 1951
Thomas J. Watson
SIRI = "Sacre Imperio Roman Interlinguan"
SIRNE = "Sacre Imperio Roman de Nationes Europee"
Thomas J. Watson - International Business Machines Corporation
President Dwight D. "Ike" Eisenhower. ⊕ "Dear Tom: ... Cordially Ike"
Curriculum vitae de Thomas J. Watson ⊕ Thomas J. Watson in 1917.
Thomas Watson, Sr.: IBM and the Computer Revolution
Head of IBM, IALA (International Auxiliary Language Association) and interlingua
The lives and ideas of the 100 world's most influential people
Famous (alleged) misquote: "There is a world market for maybe five computers"
The IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center is the largest industrial research organization in the world
Thomas J. Watson Jr.
Famous Quotes by Thomas Watson
"Patre del capitalismo"
Thomas J. Watson Sr.
(1874 - 1956)
Ille fundava le International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), un corporation que faceva
Ille era membro del directorate de IALA (International Auxiliary Language Association), que in 1951 creava interlingua - e faceva
President Eisenhower declared,
"In the passing of Thomas J. Watson, the nation has lost a truly fine American - an industrialist who was first of all a great citizen and a great humanitarian."
Presidente Eisenhower declarava,
"In le morte de Thomas J. Watson, le nation ha perdite un vermente fin americano - un industrialista qui era super toto un grande citatano e un grande humanitario."
Curriculum vitae de Thomas J. Watson- 1874 born in Campbell, N.Y. - 1892 began his career at age 18 as bookkeeper in Clarence Risley's Market in Painted Post, N.Y. Later, he sold pianos and sewing machines in the same village. - 1895 took a job as a salesman with National Cash Register Company and later became general sales manager. - 1913 married Jeannette M. Kittredge, daughter of an Ohio industrialist. They had four children. - 1914 joined CTR (Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co) as general manager. - 1915 became president of CTR. - After he was cleared of antitrust charges lingering from his tenure at NCR, Watson was promoted to president. - 1924 CTR became IBM. - 1937 became president of the International Chamber of Commerce. - 1956 died at age 82.
1874-1956, American industrialist and philanthropist, b. Campbell, N.Y. After rising from clerk to sales executive in the National Cash Register Co. (1898-1913), he became (1914) president of the foundering Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co., which made scales, time clocks, and tabulators that sorted information using punched cards, all forerunners of the earliest mainframe computers . The company was renamed International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) in 1924 and Watson became its chairman in 1949. Encouraged by his son, Thomas John Watson, Jr., he invested heavily in research and in the 1950s widened IBM's line to include electronic computers. At the senior Watson's death, IBM had assets of over $600 million and a world market of 82 countries.
Thomas J. Watson in 1917 Thomas J. Watson, Sr. (February 17, 1874 - June 19, 1956) is considered to be the founder of International Business Machines (IBM). He was one of the richest men of his time and called the world's greatest salesman when he died.
Early life and career
Watson was born in Campbell, New York. His formal education consisted of only a course in the Elmira School of Commerce. His first job was at age 18 as a bookkeeper in Clarence Risley's Market in Painted Post, New York. Later he sold sewing machines and musical instruments before joining the National Cash Register Company (NCR) as a salesman in Buffalo. He eventually worked his way up to general sales manager. Bent on inspiring the dispirited NCR sales force, Watson introduced the motto, "THINK", which later became a widely known symbol of IBM.
While at NCR, he was convicted for illegal anti-competitive sales practices (e.g. he used to have people sell deliberately faulty cash registers, either second-hand NCR or from competitors; soon after the second-hand NCR or competitors cash register failed, an NCR salesperson would arrive to sell them a brand new NCR cash register). He was sentenced, along with John H. Patterson (the owner of NCR), to one year of imprisonment. Their conviction was unpopular with the public, due to the efforts of Patterson and Watson to help those affected by the 1913 Dayton, Ohio floods, but efforts to have them pardoned by President Woodrow Wilson were unsuccessful. However, the Court of Appeals overturned the conviction on appeal in 1915, on the grounds that important defense evidence should have been admitted.
Watson married Jeanette M. Kittredge on April 17, 1913. The couple had two sons and two daughters. Both sons followed him into the family business, rising to top executive positions at IBM. The older son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., became head of IBM shortly before his father's death. The younger son, Arthur K. Watson, served as president of IBM World Trade Corp., the company's international operations.
Thomas Watson, Sr.: IBM and the Computer Revolution
www.beardbooks.com/thomas_watson_sr.html By Robert Sobel
2000/08 - Beard Books
1893122824 - Paperback - Reprint - 368 pp.
This book was the first major exploration of IBM and the men who led it. It quickly became a classic as it chronicled the company's extraordinary past and dynamic present and forecast its promising future.
When the original publication appeared in 1981, IBM was the corporate giant on the cutting edge of the electronic era and the computer revolution. The book was the first major exploration of IBM and the men who led it. It quickly became a classic as it chronicled the company's extraordinary past and dynamic present and forecast its intriguing and promising future.
In this spellbinding book Robert Sobel traces the history IBM from its modest beginnings as the National Cash Register (NCR) under Thomas Watson, Sr., the young man from the farm who went to the city and made good through pluck and luck. He shows how this astonishing corporate entity forged ahead of all others and defined the electronic world according to IBM through technological developments, management techniques, and sales campaigns.
The IBM that Watson went home to was an American icon. It was the outgrowth of a debt-ridden maker of scales, time clocks and accounting machines that his father took charge of in 1914 - the year Tom Jr. was born. The elder Watson created a fanatically loyal work force at IBM - the company's name since 1924 - hanging think signs everywhere, leading employee sing-alongs (corporate anthem: Hail to IBM) and dictating everything from office attire (white shirt, dark suit) to policies on smoking and drinking (forbidden on the job and strongly discouraged off it). IBM dominated the market for punch-card tabulators - forerunners of computers that performed such tasks as running payrolls and collating census
Head of IBM
Watson became the president of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company on May 1, 1914. This was a company that had only been in existence for three years. When he took the job, the company had fewer than 400 employees. In 1924 the company merged with the International Business Machines Corporation and took its name. Watson built IBM into such a powerful force that the federal government filed a civil antitrust suit against them in 1952. IBM owned more than 90 percent of all tabulating machines in the United States at the time.
He considered an important part of his job to motivate the sales force. As part of this, he was famous for making his salespeople at both NCR and IBM attend sing-a-longs
( see The IBM Songbook http://www.users.cloud9.net/~bradmcc/ibmsongbook.html ).
Throughout his life, Watson maintained a deep interest in international relations. He adopted for IBM the slogan, "World Peace Through World Trade", worked closely with the International Chamber of Commerce and in 1937 was elected its president. For many years Mr. Watson served as a trustee of Columbia University
( Where laborava post le secunde guerra mundial prof. André Martinet, le penultime director de recerca del IALA [Thomas J. Watson era un membro del directorate de IALA] e un membro distinguite del UMI - Union Mundial pro Interlingua)
and Lafayette College. He was presented with honorary degrees by 27 colleges and universities in the United States and four abroad. This work, however, was not without controversy. In 1937, Watson received the Eagle with Star medal from German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, for the help that IBM subsidiary Dehomag and its Hollerith punchcard machines provided the Nazi regime for tabulating census data. After the outbreak of World War II, Watson returned the medal, yet IBM continued to profit from Dehomag.
* Edwin Black's IBM and the Holocaust ( http://www.ibmandtheholocaust.com )
Watson was named chairman of IBM in September 1949. A month before his death, Watson handed over the reins of the company to his older son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr. His other son, Arthur K. Watson, served as president of IBM World Trade Corp.
He lived at 4 East Seventy-fifth Street in Manhattan at the time of his death. He is buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York.
100 world's most influential people Thomas J. Watson appare in le lista de "100 le plus influential homines del mundo" in The Time Magazine
Although Watson is well known for his alleged 1943 statement: "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers," there is no evidence he ever made it. The author Kevin Maney tried to find the origin of the quote, but has been unable to locate any speeches or documents of Watson's that contain this, nor are the words present in any contemporary articles about IBM. The earliest known citation is from 1986 on Usenet in the signature of a poster from Convex Computer Corporation as "I think there is a world market for about five computers" --Remark attributed to Thomas J. Watson (Chairman of the Board of International Business Machines), 1943.
However, in 1985 the story was discussed on Usenet (in net.misc), without Watson's name being attatched. The original discussion has not survived, but an explanation has; it attributes a very similar quote to the Cambridge mathematician Professor Douglas Hartree, around 1951:
I went to see Professor Douglas Hartree, who had built the first differential analyzers in England and had more experience in using these very specialized computers than anyone else. He told me that, in his opinion, all the calculations that would ever be needed in this country could be done on the three digital computers which were then being built -- one in Cambridge, one in Teddington, and one in Manchester. No one else, he said, would ever need machines of the own, or would be able to afford to buy them.
(quotation from an article by Lord Bowden; American Scientist vol 58 (1970) pp 43-53); cited on Usenet
(http://groups-beta.google.com/group/net.misc/msg/00c91c2cc0896b77) * First Usenet Posting of the misquote ( http://groups.google.com/groups?selm=34000003%40convex&output=gplain)
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center
Yorktown Heights, NY.
The IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center is the headquarters for the IBM Research Division -- the largest industrial research organization in the world with eight labs worldwide. Established in 1961, the Watson Research Center is located in Westchester County, New York and Cambridge, Massachusetts and spans three sites and four buildings -- the main laboratory in Yorktown Heights, two buildings in Hawthorne, and one building in Cambridge. An approximate 1,790 people are employed between these four facilities.
The research focuses primarily on IT hardware (ranging from exploratory work in the physical sciences to semiconductors and systems technology); software (including areas as diverse as security, programming, mathematics and speech technologies); and services, with a focus on applying them to transform businesses in a wide range of industries.
* Maney, Kevin (2003). The Maverick and His Machine: Thomas Watson, Sr. and the Making of IBM. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471414638.
Thomas J. Watson Jr.
Back from the war, Tom Jr. saw IBM afresh and quickly realized that its future lay in computers, not a 19th century information technology like tabulators. Even the first primitive vacuum-tube machines could calculate 10 times as fast as IBM's tabulators. Many people, however, including Watson's father, couldn't believe the company's core products were headed for extinction. Nonetheless, Tom Jr., who became IBM president in 1952, never retreated. He recruited electronics experts and brought in luminaries like computer pioneer John von Neumann to teach the company's engineers and scientists. By 1963, IBM had grabbed an 8-to-1 lead in revenues over Sperry Rand, the manufacturer of Univac.
Watson, who shared his father's volcanic temper, was just warming up. Fearful of falling behind in the fast-changing industry, Watson promoted "scratchy, harsh" individuals and pressured them to think ahead. (When IBM engineers complained that transistors were unreliable, Watson handed out transistor radios and challenged the critics to wear them out.) He never backed away from conflict, not even what he called "savage, primal and unstoppable" fights with his father over issues like finance.
He installed a "contention" system that encouraged IBM managers to challenge one another. Watson was paternal with rank-and-file employees, but he was murder on his lieutenants, in accordance with his dictum that "the higher the monkey climbs, the more he shows his ass."
BibliographyManey, Kevin (2003). The Maverick and His Machine: Thomas Watson, Sr. and the Making of IBM. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471414638. Watson, Thomas John, Jr. on Encyclopedia.com Dayton, Ohio. The son of Thomas John Watson, Sr., the founder of the International www.encyclopedia.com/html/w/watson-t1j12.asp
Famous Quotes by Thomas Watson
Zaadz Quotes by Author - Thomas Watson Quotes
Thomas Watson (1874-1956) American businessman, founder of
IBM from Thomas J. Watson in Men-Minutes-Money, a Collection of Excerpts from Talks
Famous Quotes by Thomas Watson
1. "We must never feel satisfied." Thomas Watson (1874-1956) American businessman, founder of IBM from Thomas J. Watson in Men-Minutes-Money, a Collection of Excerpts from Talks . . . 2. "Time is your chief stock in trade." 3. "Success is an individual proposition." 4. "Life itself is a matter of salesmanship." 5. "The future is going to demand more of us." 6. "Make time your ally and time will make you." 7. "We progress because we are willing to change." 8. "If you want to succeed, double your failure rate." 9. "Encouragement isa a necessary part of supervision." 10. "We are all trying to learn how to do a better job." 11. "The young man requires wisdom as well as knowledge." 12. "If a man goes to work in the right spirit, work is no hardship." 13. "The future of this business is far beyond the vision of any of us. 14. "If we do not take advantage of our opportunities, it is our own fault." 15. "There is more real need for the pioneering spirit today than ever before." 16. "We must all take time to do enough thinking to formulate our own conclusions." 17. "Business is a game, the greatest game in the world if you know how to play it." 18. "It is better to aim at perfection and miss, than to aim at imperfection and hit it" 19. "All the problems of the world could be settled easily if men were only willing to think." 20. "Joining a company is an act that calls for absolute from Thomas and Marva Belden in The Life of Thomas J. Watson, 1962, Little, Brown and Co. 21. "The time who utilizes every minute of every hour becomes a bigger, better being every minute." 22. "Wisdom is the power that enables us to use knowledge for the benefit of ourselves and others." 23. "What we need in this country today is more courage and more belief in the things that we have." 24. "The man who does not take pride in his own performance performs nothing in which to take pride." 25. "You work the first eight hours of each day for survival. Anything after that is an investment." 26. "Time is the substance of life - and recording it, the most important thing with which a man has to deal." 27. "Don't make friends who are comfortable to be with. Make friends who will force you to lever yourself up." ~ Thomas Watson (1874-1956) 28. "We must all consider ourselves as assistants, regardless of the titles we carry in our official capacities." 29. "Nothing so conclusively proves a man's ability to lead others as what he does from day to day to lead himself." 30. "Watson's motto at the first CTR conventions: Your company is your friend. That is my hope and aim and ambition." 31. "Watson's motto at the first CTR conventions: Your company is your friend. That is my hope and aim and ambition." 32. "The success of every major executive depends on the men under him. Really successful men are pushed up, not pulled up." 33. "None of us can hope to get anywhere without character, moral courage and the spiritual strength to accept responsibility." 34. "He would say over and over again that the company was not merely a business, but "an institution that will go on forever."" 35. "A minute has no negative qualities; it can be made to yield something, but not nothing. Its yield is something beneficial, or something detrimental." 36. "What synchronism means to a clock, a convention means to our organization; it enables those of us who are behind to catch up and get in step with the others." 37. "Put First Things First! These four words cover an entire philosophy which can be applied with profit by every business leader, by every executive and by every employee." 38. "If joining IBM was commitment, not employment, and the company engaged in something more than business, it had a right to demand of its men unconditional loyalty, Watson believed." 39. "Follow the path of the unsafe, independent thinker. Expose your ideas to the danger of controversy. Speak your mind and fear less the label of "crackpot" than the stigma of conformity." 40. "A message from Paris to demonstrate the International Radiotype at the National Business Show in NYC, October 16, 1933: We shall find ourselves in a better world than mankind has ever known." 41. "The man who bases his actions on independent thought; who reflects and considers before doing anything, and whose judgments are arrived at through logic, is the man who will go farthest today." 42. "Watson clearly spelled out his attitude about drinking, prohibiting liquor at IBM functions, on IBM premises, for IBM purposes: You can mix your drinking with pleasure, but not with our business." 43. "Speech celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge, May 24, 1933: It was courage, faith, endurance and a dogged determination to surmount all obstacles that built this bridge." 44. "Recently, I was asked if I was going to fire an employee who made a mistake that cost the company $600,000. No, I replied, I just spent $600,000 training him. Why would I want somebody to hire his experience?" 45. "I think there's a world market for about five computers. Quoted by Charles Hard Townes In Martin Moskovits (Ed.), Science and Society, the John C. Polanyi Nobel Lareates Lectures, Anansi Press, Concord, Ontario, 1995, p 8." 46. "Point out to the men working with you and around you that we forgive thoughtful mistakes - that it is only the thoughtless mistakes that cause trouble. Tell them first to be sure they have thought about each proposition, then to go ahead." 47. "When I speak about the future development of our business, I want to include every other business in the United States. In my judgment, every legitimate business in our country today has a far better future ahead of it than it has ever had before." 48. "Less than three weeks before his death, in one of Watson's last public statements about his company, he observed: It's this family spirit-combined with vision and faith-that has been responsible, perhaps more than anything else, for IBM's success." 49. "The business leaders of tomorrow will be the young men of today-men like you who are preparing now for the great future which lies ahead. You may view the future with confidence, knowing that from the youth of today will emerge the leaders of tomorrow." 50. "Watson himself said that when he was able to develop loyalty in men, ability followed. "Joining a company is an act that calls for absolute loyalty in big matters and little ones," he declared. Criticism, if necessary at all, was permitted only to superiors." 51. "Princeton Universtiy, October 13, 1928: There is no saturation point in education if you follow sound principles, and you must apply this motto to business. . . You must acquire wisdom in addition to knowledge. Wisdom is the power which enables you to use your knowledge to advantage." 52. "Membership in the IBM family exacted certain standards of conduct. The reputation of the company was in the hands of everyone who worked for it, Watson insisted. Therefore, his employees were warned against doing anything, even in their private lives, which would be to the discredit of the organization." 53. "It was necessary for us to discover greater powers of destruction than our enemies. We did. But after every war we have followed through with a new rise in our standard of living by the application of war-taught knowledge for the benefit of the world. It will be the same with the atomic bomb principles." 55. "I believe in getting behind the individual and backing him up, helping him to strengthen himself, making him feel that there is someone endeavoring to help him, trying to be an assistant to him, and bringing out the best there is in him-in other words, teaching him to teach himself, and in that way strengthen the entire organization." 56. "Within us all there are wells of thought and dynamos of energy which are not suspected until emergencies arise. Then oftentimes we find that it is comparatively simple to double or treble our former capacities and to amaze ourselves by the results achieved. Quotas, when set up for us by others, are challenges which goad us on to surpass ourselves. The outstanding leaders of every age are those who set up their own quotas and constantly exceed them." 57. "All great questions of politics and economics come down in the last analysis to the decisions and actions of individual men and women. They are questions of human relations, and we ought always to think about them in terms of men and women-the individual human beings who are involved in them. If we can get human relations on a proper basis, the statistics, finance and all other complicated technical aspects of these questions will be easier to solve." 58. "A message sent to all members of the American Sales Organization at the opening of the IBM Election Prize Contest, September 1, 1932. In every walk of life, the highest places and the greatest rewards go to those who have the courage to attempt and ability to achieve big things. That is true in science. It is true in government. It is true in business. And it is true in this organization. IBM leaders in the past have proved their worth by performance, just as they will in this sales campaign." 59. ""If you are loyal you are successful," ruminated the company paper at one time. "All useful work is raised to the plane of art when love for the task-loyalty-is fused with the effort. Loyalty is the great lubricant of life. It saves the wear and tear of making daily decisions as to what is best to do. The man who is loyal to his work is not wrung nor perplexed by doubts, he sticks to the ship, and if the ship founders he goes down like a hero with colors flying at the masthead and the band playing."" 60. "We are willing to spend any reasonable amount of money on education in our organization, because we have a group of men and women in our business who are constantly seeking knowledge, knowing that is the way to make themselves more valuable to the company and, automatically, more valuable to themselves. We are working out a plan that is going to take in everybody in the organization. We are going to have post graduate schools for our men in the field, and post graduate schools for our executives-and many of them." 61. "It can't be done, engineers might tell him. It has to be done, Watson would order, and often it could be. With this approach Watson brought out the best in his men-in his engineers, for example. He believed that engineering, like salesmanship, depended not only on laws but on will. For him the first principle of science, as well as the first principle of the world of men, was enthusiasm. Build it, he would order his engineers arbitrarily. And when they did, the machine often seemed to be a triumph of Dale Carnegie over Newton." 62. "A message regarding the annual convention of the Advertising Federation of America in NYC, June 14-18, 1931. Advertising has illuminated the path of progress. . . . In building up desire, advertising has spurred new endeavors. It is their creative work, their dynamic presentations of products, their ability to teach and educate which have made each of us desire better things. And in the fulfillment of our desires, we have reached for and attained higher pinnacles in living standards and a clearer conception of the values of life itself." 63. "What we do with our leisure time has considerable bearing on what we accomplish during our working hours, and very largely determines the degree of our success, Young men who, like yourselves, devote a predetermined amount of their leisure hours to study and to serious thinking, are the men who are going to progress far and fast. The business leaders of tomorrow will be the young men of today-men like you who are preparing now for the great future which lies ahead. You may view the future with confidence, knowing that from the youth of today will emerge the leaders of tomorrow." 64. "Princeton Universtiy, October 13, 1928: In order to be a success in business, there is one thing you must do. You cannot be successful without it. That is WORK. I have not told you anything new. Everyone knows that you cannot be successful in anything without work. Why does not everyone work? Because some lack the one thing that makes men want to work - ENTHUSIASM. That is something no one can give you. You must acquire it yourself, and the only way that you can become enthusiastic about anything is to have a thorough KNOWLEDGE of it. You have never seen an enthusiastic man who was lazy." 65. "A tribute, published October 22, 1931, to Thomas Alva Edison upon his death: THE passing of Thomas Alva Edison serves to direct our attention to the multitude of benefactions he bestowed upon all humanity during his many years of fruitful activity. It reminds us of the debt of gratitude we owe him as members of the human race. By his achievements, he laid the foundation for continued and greater development. His persistent efforts and indefatigable spirit multiplied many times the valuable opportunities for man, especially the young man. To each and every young man, Mr. Edison left a legacy of opportunities." 66. "It is my personal opinion that we are going to recover from this depression and establish on a sounder and better basis, and we are going to reach greater heights of prosperity than ever before in this country. Now, that is just my personal opinion, but it is based on history, because that is what has happened following every depression. As we read the history of the various depressions we find that the people all felt about them just as we do about this one. One of the reasons we go ahead rapidly after coming out of a depression is that inventive genius and business talents have been put to a test, and they have always devised new and better ways to do things." 67. "The greatest asset of a man, a business or a nation is faith. The men who built this country and those who made it prosper during its darkest days were men whose faith in its future was unshakable. Men of courage, they dared to go forward despite all hazards; men of vision, they always looked forward, never backward. Christianity, the greatest institution humanity has ever known, was founded by twelve men, limited in education, limited in resources, but with an abundance of faith and divine leadership. The vision essential to clear thinking; the common sense needed for wise decisions; the courage of convictions based on facts not fancies; and the constructive spirit of faith as opposed to the destructive forces of doubt will preserve our Christian ways of life." 68. "A tribute, published October 22, 1931, to Thomas Alva Edison upon his death: More than any other man, Mr. Edison lifted us out of the material surroundings of the Middle Ages. For most part, his inventions were spectacular in that they served to effect the emancipation of humanity and at the same time made possible mass production, greater factories, new and faster transportation methods, speedier distribution of commodities and a general increase in the happiness and higher standards of living for the peoples of the world. His inventions have provided employment directly for more than a million persons and many millions are employed because of their indirect benefits. It has been recorded that the investment value of all the undertakings rooted in his inventions equals the value of all the gold mined in the world since Columbus discovered America. Thomas A. Edison, whom we revered for his simplicity and his greatness, has passed on, but his name and his achievements remain to be magnified in the light of their untold benefits to future generations." 69. "There is very little difference between the general manager, the sales manager, the factory manager, the office manager, the factory man, the office man and the salesman. We have different ideas and different work, but when you come down to it, there is just one thing we have to deal with throughout the whole organization - that is the "MAN." Here is the way it lines up: The Manufacturer general manager sales manager factory manager office manager factory man office man salesMan This is a man proposition pure and simple; that includes the ladies too, by the way-all mankind. I think this one point is something we should keep in mind at all times regardless of what our occupations or duties are; we are just men-men standing together, shoulder to shoulder, all working for one common good; we have one common interest, and the good of each of us as individuals affects the greater good of the company. From a talk made at the opening session of The International Time Recording Company Sales Convention, held at Endicott, NY, January 25-30, 1915." 70. "Watson's answer to a question about competition in his first company meeting, 1914, as the new president, of the CTR (Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company), the company that was to become IBM: ". . . the only way that we want you men to handle the competition proposition is the only way we can afford to allow you men to handle it, that is, strictly on the merits of our goods. . . . You people when you come down to competition-must not do anything that's in restraint of trade, anything that will restrain the other fellow from selling his goods, anything that could be construed by anybody as unfair competition," he said, stammering in his earnestness. "You know, gentlemen, it is bad policy to do anything unfair with anybody, anywhere at any time, isn't it, in business or outside of business? No man ever won except in the one honest, fair and square way in which you men are working." The audience burst into applause, interrupting Watson again and again as he assured them that he would uphold fairness no matter what the competition did. . . . The spirit of the meeting quickened; and Watson, for the first time, began to take command." 71. "DEAR Tom: A thought that has occurred and reoccurred to me during my vacation is that some capable writer should do a biography of your life. This thought came to me because of my constant concern, publicly and privately, in the combating of the trend toward excessive paternalism in Government. As you know, I constantly preach individual initiative and acceptance of individual responsibility if we are in the long run to avert Statism. It seems to me that an account of your life would be a story of practicable achievement in the free enterprise system that would be far more effective in support of my argument than almost anything else could be. You have been known as one of the liberal leaders of industry; your own personal record as well as that of your company under your leadership should bring home many lessons to the participants in the industrial strife that now plagues the nation. There are undoubtedly many writers and scholars who would like to write a biography of you. It might even be done best as a "collaboration" effort by two or more writers. In any event, it is my thought that maybe you will be sufficiently interested to talk it over with me when I am in New York. Cordially, IKE"
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