International Auxiliary Language Association
Personas eminente detra le creation de interlingua
SIRI = "Sacre Imperio Roman Interlinguan"
SIRNE = "Sacre Imperio Roman de Nationes Europee"
Earle B. Babcock, decano del New York University, membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923,
le prime presidente (1924-1936) del IALA
Dr Stephen P. Duggan, cofundator e director del IIE (Institute of International Education), membro del gruppo
que precedeva le IALA in 1923, le 3e e ultime presidente (1940-1950) del IALA
Presidente del American Cooperative Committee of the Pan-European Union 1925-1940
Dr John H. Finley, in 1892 le plus juvene presidente de un universitate in le SUA (Knox College),
1918-1919 Commissario del Cruce Rubie in Palestina, membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923,
1937-38 editor-in-chief del New York Times, le 2e presidente (1936-1940) del IALA
Dr Alfred N. Goldsmith, vice-president and general manager of the RCA (Radio Corporation of America),
membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923 e in 1951 membro del directorate de IALA
Arthur Arton Hamerschlag, the first president of the CIT (Carnegie Institute of Technology), membro del gruppo
que precedeva le IALA in 1923 e in 1951 membro del directorate de IALA
General James G. Harbord, un del plus famose generales in le historia del armea de SUA, 1917 chef del stato
major de gen. John J. Pershing, commandante del American Fortias Expeditionari in Francia, 1918
commandante del 2e division in le 2e battalia de Marne, presidente e in 1930 presidente del
consilio directive del RCA (Radio Corporation of America), membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in
1923, presidente del Committee de Budget del IALA
Frederick Paul Keppel, dean of the Columbia University, secretary of the American Association for International
Conciliation, third assistant secretary of war, director of foreign operations for the American Red Cross,
commissioner for the United States International Chamber of Commerce, 1923-1941 president of the Carnegie
Corporation of New York, membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923
Earle B. Babcock
Le prime presidente del IALA (1924-1935)
Sposa: QUICK, Edith Lethbridge (nascite 1894, morte 1980)
Patre: QUICK, George Gerard
Mother: SCOTT, Margaret Isabel
Children: BABCOCK, Gerald George
Professor de linguas e litteratura romanic e decano del Graduate School, New York University. Membro fundante in 1925 del Societate Linguistic de America.
Participava in un serie de conferentias in New York in le fin de martio 1923 que duceva al formation del International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) le anno sequente. Deveniva le prime presidente del IALA (Board of Directors) 1924-1935. "Directeur-adjoint" al centro europee de Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Dr Stephen P. DugganDuggan, Stephen P.
Membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923, le 3e e ultime presidente (1940-1950) del IALA
Dr.ph., Statos Unite, cofundator e director del IIE (Institute of International Education), le membro e ultime presidente del IALA - International Auxiliary Language Association, que creava INTERLINGUA
In 1923 Dr. Cottrell, un famose chimico, proponeva a sra Alice Vanderbilt Morris e su sposa le idea de crear un gruppo permanente que poterea continuar le studios que habeva essite comenciate per varie committees. Le ambes habeva essite active in varie organisationes concernente le melioration de conditiones del societate human, e illes videva immediatemente le significantia de un lingua international como medios pro developpar un communitate international que pareva esser un sperantia possibile. Illes convocava in 1923 homines e feminas de large experientia in affaires international, communication e scholarships linguistic a discuter que on poteva facer pro focalisar attention al jam ben establite movimento pro un lingua international. Le gruppo includeva multe personas eminente, como Stephen P. Duggan.
1925 Durante un tournee al Statos Unite de Coudenhove-Kalergi le "American Cooperative Committee of the Pan-European Union" era create, dr Stephen P. Duggan como presidente.
1927 IALA publicava le "Preliminary Investigation of the Teaching of Auxiliary Languages in Schools" de Stephen P. Duggan
1940 Coudenhove-Kalergi demandava dr. Stephen P. Duggan de novo convocar le American Cooperative Committee of the Pan-European Union", que C-K habeva fundate ante 16 annos sub presidentia de Stephen P. Duggan.
(1940-1950) Dr. Stephen P. Duggan le 3e e ultime presidente del IALA. INTERLINGUA era complite in 1951, un anno post le morte de Duggan.
1943 Le 5e congresso paneuropee in New York sub auspicio del Universitate de New York. Le inauguration del conferentia habeva loco in le grande sala de ballo del Hotel Waldorf-Astoria. Stephen P. Duggan parlava pro le Committee Europee de America.
Stephen P. Duggan moriva in 1950, le mesme anno quando moriva Alice Vanderbilt Morris, le fundator, primus motor, "musa" e financiator del IALA.
1994 Le IIE faceva 75 annos. Le committee honorari de iste celebration consisteva de: Presidente del Statos Unite de America Bill Clinton e omne vivente ex-presidentes del Statos Unite, omne vivente ex-vice-presidentes del SUA, George P. Shultz, Alexander M.Haig Jr., Cyrus R. Vance, Henry A. Kissinger, Dean Rusk et alii. Presidente de Irlanda Mary Robinson recipeva le Premio de Stephen P. Duggan, Sr., nominate pro le fundator e prime presidente del IIE, pro su contributiones a accordo international. Cyrus R.Vance, previe secretario del stato, faceva le presentation.
Referentias a Stephen P. Duggan in le memorias de Coudenhove-Kalergi
EINE IDEE EROBERT EUROPA
VERLAG KURT DESCH
Wien, München, Basel 1958
DIE PANEUROPA-BEWEGUNG BEGINNT
S. 139: Amerikanische Paneuropa-Komitee
Unter den Amerikanern, mit denen ich damals (1925) Paneuropa sprach waren Herbert Hoover, Staatssekretät Frank Kellogg, Colonel House, Owen D. Young, Bernard Baruch und Walter Lippmann.
Vor unserer Abreise gründete ich das "American Cooperative Comitee of the Pan-European Union" unter dem Vorsitz des Direktors des Internationalen Erziehungsinstituts in New York, Dr. Stephen Duggan.
Aufgabe dieses Komitees, das eine Reihe führender Persönlichkeiten Amerikas umfasste, war es, darüber zu wachen, dass in der amerikanischen Öffentlichkeit keine gegen Paneuropa gerichtete Strömung entstand.
Einer meiner tatkräftigsten amerikanischen Freunde un Gönner war der Präsident der Columbia-Universität, Nicholas Murray Butler, zugleich der Präsident der Carnegie-Friedensstiftung. Er schrieb das Vorwort zur amerikanischen Ausgabe von "Paneuropa"" (A. Knopf - Verlag, New York 1926)
FLUCHT INS EXIL
Trotz der Ungunst der Kriegslage (1940) begann ich langsam für die Europa-Idee in Amerika zu werben. Ich bat Dr. Stephen Duggan das "American Cooperative Committee of the Pan-European Union", das ich sechzehn Jahre zuvor unter seinem Vorsitz gegründet hatte, wieder einzuberufen. Von da ab hielten wir periodische Sitzungen; unser Komitee wurde durch eine Reihe einflussreicher Amerikaner erweitert.
PANEUROPA GEWINNT AMERIKA
p 258: Paneuropa-Kongress im Exil
Auf dem weltpolitischen Hintergrund dieser Churchill-Rede tagte unser fünfter Paneuropa-Kongress unter den Auspizien der New York University.
Für den Kongress hatte ich ein KOmitee prominenter Europäer organisiert, dessen Vorsitz ich mit dem früheren Aussenminister der spanischen Republik, Fernando de los Rios, und Louis Marlio teilte.
Diesem "Europa-Rat in Amerika" gehörten u.a. die beiden früheren Ministerpräsidenten Paul van Zeeland und Milan Hodzha an; die Minister a.D. Rudolf Holsti (Finnland) und Radu Irimescu (Rumänien); der österreichische Sektionschef Richard Schüller; der Generalsekretär der luxemburgischen Regierung Leon Schaus; Sophokles Venizelos, der bald griechischer Ministerpräsident wurde und die paneurop&aum;ische Tradition seines unvergesslichen Vaters fortsetzte; der Leiter des polnischen Institutes in New York, Professor Oscar Halecki, der bekannte Genfer Arzt Raymond de Saussure sowie der frühere Ministerpräsident der Baskischen Republik, Antonio di Aguirre. Die umfassende technische Leitung des Kongresses lag in den Händen meiner Frau (Ida Roland, weltbekannte Schauspielerin - AK).
Am Abend der Eröffnung fand Kongressbankett im grossen Ballsaal des Hotels Waldorf-Astoria statt. Ausser Botschafter William Bullitt, der präsidierte, und den drei Vorsitzenden des Kongresses, de los Rios, Marlio und mir, sprachen Rektor Chase für die Universität, Stephen Duggan für unser amerikanisches Europa-Komitee und der Senator von Ohio, Harold O. Burton, der bald darauf zu einem der höchsten Richter Amerikas ernannt wurde.
MOBILISIERUNG DER PARLAMENTARIER
S. 301: Bei Truman und Marshall
Vor unserer Heimreise nach Europa gründete ich am 18. April 1948 das "American Committee for a Free and United Europe" aus führenden Persönlichkeiten der Vereinigten Staaten. Es sollte das Interesse an der Idee der Vereinigten Staaten von Europa wachhalten und meine Arbeit der letzten Jahre in Amerika fortsetzen.
William Bullitt half mir entscheidend bei dieser Gründung und übernahm das Vizepräsidium. Senator Fulbright wurde Präsident und ich, als Gründer und einziges nichtamerikanisches Mitglied, Ehrenpräsident.
S. 355: Die anderen Komitee-Mitglieder:
Präsident Herbert Hoover; Robert Patterson, der frühere Kriegsminister; James A. Farley, Präsident der Demokratischen Partei; Norman Thomas, der sozialistische Präsidentschaftskandidat; Botschafter John W. Davis; General Donovan; die Senatoren Robert M. La Follete und Burton K. Wheeler; die Abgeordneten Hale Boggs und Christian A. Herter; William Green, Präsident des Amerikanischen Gewerkschaftsbundes; Karl Alter, katholischer Bischof von Toledo; Dr. Stephen Duggan; die Rektoren Harry Woodburn Chase und Robert J. Gannon S.J.; die Präsidenten des Brooklyn- und Hunter-College, Harry D. Gideonse und George N. Shuster; Allen Dulles, Präsident des Council on Foreign Relations; Richard S. Childs, Präsident der Citizens Union; Philip D. Reed, Präsident der General Electric Co.; Robert Moses, Park-Kommissionär von New York; Hans V. Kaltenborn, Radiokommentator; die Professoren Arnold J. Zurcher und John Y. Keur; die Vizepräsidenten der Chase National Bank, Fredrik W. Gehle, Joseph J. Larkin und George E. Warren; Chefredakteur Clayton Fritchey; Thomas Watson, Präsident der Am. Business Machine Co.; Clare Booth-Luce; Alice Roosevelt-Longworth; Dorothy Thompson.
LE MOVIMENTO PANEUROPEE COMENCIA
p 139: American Committee Paneuropee
FUGA A EXILIO
PANEUROPA CONQUERA AMERICA
p 258: Conferentia Paneuropee in exilio
MOBILISATION DE PARLAMENTARICOS
p 301: Con Truman e Marshall
p 355: Le altere membros del committee:
Thomas J. Watson, secundo le TIME Magazine (2005) un del "100 le plus influential homines in le historia del mundo", era membro del directorate del IALA, le organisation que creava interlingua.
Dr John H. FinleyJohn Huston Finley, le 2e presidente (1936-40) del IALA (International Auxiliary Language Association), era nascite a Grand Ridge, Illinois in 1863. Ille attendeva Knox College e ille era graduate como su valedictus in 1887. Ille faceva su studios post-graduate al Johns Hopkins University, illac ille studiava historia e jornalismo. Ille startava su cariera professional como secretario del New York State Charities Aid Association (1889-92).
Membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923, in 1936-1940 le (2e) presidente del IALA
Ille deveniva presidente del Knox college in 1892 como le plus juvene presidente de un universitate in le SUA. Ille era un editor successose de jornales philanthropic, includente Charities Review and State Charities Record. Ille etiam serviva como editor de Harper's Weekly magazine. In 1900-03 ille era un professor de politica al Princeton University, ubi ille deveniva amico del tote le vita del ex-presidente Grover Cleveland.
1903-1913 ille serviva como presidente del City College of New York. Ille era le Commissario del Cruce Rubie in Palestina in 1918-1919. 1913-21 ille era le presidente del University of the State of New York e le commissario de education pro le Stato de New York. 1921-1937 ille era editor associate e 1937-38 editor-in-chief del New York Times. Durante su longe cariera ille era presentate con 32 grados honorari. Como un grande promenator ille promenava durante 30 annos circum Manhattan Island. In Palestina ille un vice promenava 120 km. durante un die e nocte. Ille era un presbyteriano e studente de latino e greco. Ille era un contributor importante in colliger pecunias pro le renovation del Parthenon in Athenas. Ille assisteva in fundation del Dictionary of American Biography. Ille moriva in 1940. Ille es i.a. autor del libro "The Debt Eternal" (1923).
Dr Alfred N. Goldsmith
Membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923 e in 1951 membro del directorate de IALA
Alfred N. Goldsmith
1888 - 1974
Alfred Norton Goldsmith, born in New York City on 15 September 1888, received his B.S. from the College of the City of New York in 1907 and his Ph.D. from CCNY in 1911. While holding an appointment as instructor and then associate professor of electrical engineering there, Goldsmith also undertook various consulting positions, including that of a radio expert with the U.S. Department of Justice in 1914, a radio engineer for the Atlantic Communication Co. in 1914, and for the General Electric Co. from 1915 to 1917. He then became the director of research for the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America and, when that company was acquired by the newly-founded RCA Corp. in 1919, Goldsmith was made director of research for RCA. He remained with that company, later becoming vice-president and general manager, until 1931, opting then for independent consulting. He maintained an advisory relationship with RCA for life, however.
Goldsmith was Robert Marriott's fellow representative of The Wireless Institute in its merger with the Society of Wireless Telegraph Engineers to form the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) in 1912. He was the first Editor of the Proceedings of the IRE, and remained in that position for 42 years. He was made a Fellow of the IRE in 1915 and served as secretary in 1918, president in 1928 and on the board of directors for the entire 51 years of the IRE's independent existence. In addition to being awarded the IRE's Medal of Honor in 1941 "For his contributions to radio research, engineering, and commercial development, his leadership in standardization, and his unceasing devotion to the establishment and upbuilding of the Institute and its PROCEEDINGS", and the Founders Award in 1954, Goldsmith was the first recipient of the IEEE Haraden Pratt Award, established in 1972 to honor "outstanding service to the Institute."
Goldsmith's interests went beyond radio, however. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Acoustical Society of America, the Optical Society of America and the International College of Surgeons, and was a Benjamin Franklin Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (London). He died on 2 July 1974 in St. Petersburg, Florida.
Interviewee: Alfred N. Goldsmith
Interviewer: Kenneth Van Tassel
Date: March, 1974
This manuscript is being made available for research purposes only. All literary rights in the manuscript, including the right to publish, are reserved to the IEEE History Center. No part of the manuscript may be quoted for publication without the written permission of the Director of IEEE History Center.
Request for permission to quote for publication should be addressed to the IEEE History Center Oral History Program, Rutgers - the State University, 39 Union Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8538 USA. It should include identification of the specific passages to be quoted, anticipated use of the passages, and identification of the user.
It is recommended that this oral history be cited as follows:
Alfred N. Goldsmith, Electrical Engineer, an oral history conducted in 1974 by Kenneth Van Tassel, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
Van Tassel: This is an interview with Doctor Alfred Norton Goldsmith, Director Emeritus of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Doctor Goldsmith was born in New York City on September 15th, 1888. He attended City College and obtained his bachelor's degree in 1907. He obtained his doctor's degree from Columbia University in 1911. He was a Phi Beta Kappa. In 1930 he married Maud Johnson. He taught at City College from 1906 to 1923. He is a life associate professor of electrical engineering, and was a construction engineer for General Electric from 1914 to 1916. He became director of research for Marconi of America in 1917 to 1919. He then became director of research, chief broadcasting engineer, the vice president of RCA from 1919 to 1933. In addition he was chairman of the board of consulting engineers for the National Broadcasting, and vice-president of RCA Photophone from 1928 to 1931. He also was vice-president in general engineering for RCA from then on. He has acquired over one hundred patents in the field of electronics. He has written several books and numerous papers, and he been honored by a long list of organizations. Among these are the National Pioneers in 1940, the Medal of Honor from the IRE in 1941, and Television Broadcasting Association Medal in 1945. Dr. Goldsmith, can you tell us about the Radio Club of America, and how the IRE was founded?
Goldsmith: There were in existence around 1910 to 1912 two major societies in the radio field. One was the Society of Motion Picture Engineers.
Van Tassel: Good.
Goldsmith: It was headquartered in Boston, and was under the tutelage and presidency of John V. L. Hogan. The other was the Wireless Institute, which was under the presidency of --
Van Tassel: Marriott.
Goldsmith: Of course. Robert H. Marriott, who was at the time the chief engineer of a radio service for what was called the Wireless Company of America. It no longer exists. These two societies each had a couple of hundred members, and were competitive in a sense, and not in the least co-operative. This was a deplorable state of affairs because in a small and growing field, one really needed an adequate concentration of effort and time and energy. Consequently, a number of us, notably Robert Marriott, felt that there should be a single society brought about through the combination of the two. This was much more difficult to do than might be regarded as possible, because each of the societies wanted to be the kingpin, and consequently each of them was vying for the presidency and the title of the new society if there was one. It was agreed that there should be one.
Van Tassel: Yes.
Goldsmith: It was not agreed that they should combine, or if they did combine, that they would have a name that would not favor either one of them. The problem was solved by your humble servant in a very simple way. The Boston-based Society of Wireless Telegraph Engineers, gave part of the name of the new society, and the Wireless Institute in New York gave the rest. The two names, the Wireless Institute and the Society of Wireless Telegraph Engineers combined to form the Institute of Radio Engineers.
Van Tassel: Yes.
Goldsmith: So the name was a compromise of two organizations which were otherwise duplicating their efforts. The first president was Robert Marriott, and thereafter came a succession of presidents, the latest of whom was the fiftieth president.
Van Tassel: Patrick Haggerty.
Goldsmith: He later became president of the organization down in Texas, I think. It produces great quantities of solid state equipment.
Van Tassel: Texas Instruments?
Goldsmith: Texas Instruments. He was its president, and he became president of the joint society up here.
Van Tassel: Yes.
Goldsmith: And this name was really adopted as a convenient and correct name for the organization.
Van Tassel: Can you tell us some of the first meetings that you had with Mr. Hogan and Mr. Marriott at Columbia? The three of you met together?
Goldsmith: We met there and fought it out, so to speak. Thereafter we met a number of times down in Fulton Street, at the White Restaurant, and hammered out details there. Hogan, Marriott, and myself. These were the three.
Van Tassel: Well, way back in the earlier days, you had some experience with the deForest Audion?
Goldsmith: That is right. They were used at the time as detectors of the crystal type, crystal detectors. Galena?
Van Tassel: Galena crystals, yes.
Goldsmith: And various other crystals. A common figure at the time also was the one of the hard-working presidents of the IRE, namely Pickard.
Van Tassel: Pickard, yes. I believe this early vacuum tube was manufactured by a man named --
Goldsmith: McCandless, who was a manufacturer of vacuum tubes down on the lower east side of New York City, and therefore seemed to be the logical person to make vacuum tubes for the general sales. He was able to produce a product that was far from uniform. The vacuum in it was sometimes very high vacuum, and sometimes very low. The result was that conductivity was readily enough initiated in these vacuum tubes, and the residual gas in there became conductive. The tubes which were hitherto high vacuum and invisible, or reasonably high vacuum, would glow a bright blue. It was everybody's wish to own one of them because they were of course far more sensitive, and unusually more dependable than the cat's whisker, the galena crystal.
Van Tassel: May we also ask you about 1915 and 1916, when you conducted some experiments in radio transmission? You had a nice big five-kilowatt radio set.
Goldsmith: I was at the time a consulting engineer for the General Electric Company and I worked with E. F. W. Alexanderson, who was the chief engineer in the radio field for General Electric in Schenectady. I also worked with W. C. White, who was the vacuum tube man, and at times with Langmuir, who was of course a very eminent scientist and who made available the first of the high vacuum tubes. There was quite a struggle between Langmuir's high vacuum tube and the circuitry and tubes of Dr. George Campbell in Bell Laboratories.
Van Tassel: Yes. Campbell and Arnold.
Goldsmith: Campbell had put in a patent application on the tube, and their use over long distance telephone circuit amplifiers. He was competitive in this theorem with Michael I. Pupin, who was a professor of electrical engineering and physics up at Columbia University.
Van Tassel: You, I believe, were the student of Dr. Pupin.
Goldsmith: I studied under Pupin, who was a very temperamental and very capable person, and a very difficult person. He had odd ways of emphasizing things. He would, for example, get his class in a large classroom and lecture to them. When he got two-thirds of the way through he would say, "No, I do not like this." Pupin had an accent, and he would rub out the whole thing he'd done and start all over again.
Van Tassel: Yes.
Goldsmith: He was very difficult that way. He spoke so rapidly and made so many changes in his material, and the field was so dubious, that it became necessary for us to team up. I teamed up with an elderly gentleman who was very bright, and each of us took notes. We then combined our notes over the lectures and used those to study the fifteen lectures on high voltage and tubes. I didn't know anything about my partner, but one day I happened to mention that he and I were working together to a third man and he burst out laughing. He said, "Do you know who he is?" I said, "No, I have no idea who he is, but I know he seems to get the material very rapidly and we work together nicely." He said, "Well, he happens to be C.L. Mailloux, president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers."
Van Tassel: Very interesting. That's nice. What were some of the kinds of topics that were taught in colleges at that time?
Goldsmith: Well, advanced physics.
Van Tassel: Advanced physics.
Goldsmith: And electricity. And, of course, typical college material. The particular thing that Pupin was emphasizing at the time was the induction motor.
Van Tassel: The induction motor, yes.
Goldsmith: Induction motor and generators. These were therefore emphasized in his lectures, and he got into squabbles with German inventors, who were working in that field. However, in the field of Bell Laboratories, the Bell Laboratories people were very cooperative and wise. They made an arrangement with Professor Pupin, who competed for claim over a theorem with George Campbell, and this theorem involved loading on long distance telephone lines as I said earlier. If Campbell won the contest over theorem, Pupin was out, that was the end of him. If Pupin won the battle for the theorem they would buy a patent from him. I think he got about seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars payment for the patent and its rights.
Van Tassel: Yes.
Goldsmith: And that was the start of his fortune.
Van Tassel: Seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars is a good start on a fortune, yes. Apparently Pupin won the patent case.
Goldsmith: He did win. At the time, I worked not only with the General Electric Company and W. C. White and Alexanderson, but also with various other people up in Schenectady who were cooperative.
Van Tassel: Were you acquainted with Mr. Charles Steinmetz?
Goldsmith: No. He was a brilliant hunch-backed gentleman, and extrememly important in the field of electrical engineering, as you know. I don't need to go into that.
Van Tassel: No. Let's go back to the 1915 radio transmission test that you conducted out to North Dakota.
Goldsmith: Yes. I was very desirous of carrying out real experiments over considerable distances. The first thing I tried was reaching the Germans. They had a transmitter and receiver at Nauen near Berlin. This was a high-power transmitter with multiple amplification and repetition. They ran the thing, and I received it at Sayville, Long Island, with a receiving station of ours, and there was a transmitter there of the same type as in Nauen. That circuit from Sayville to Germany was so feeble that the cable that came from the receiver to the receiving set that the operators used was kept away from anything it could rub against because if it rubbed against something the signal was drowned out.
Van Tassel: With the static and the noise that it would pick up?
Goldsmith: Yes. You can tell what the signal was like.
Van Tassel: How weak.
Van Tassel: And your transmitter was in the neighborhood of five kilowatts?
Goldsmith: No, it was more than that. It was around ten kilowatts. Amplification and repetition.
Van Tassel: You also worked, I think, with Hoyt Taylor.
Goldsmith: I put this transmitter into my laboratory, which was the City College of New York, where I was a professor of electrical engineering. I started transmitting in the late fall of 1914. I transmitted up the Hudson valley, to Schenectady. The signal was gorgeous. You would have thought there was a telephone line between my laboratory and the laboratory in Schnectady, but by February of the next year, static had come up tremendously and you couldn't hear a thing, so it was useless.
Van Tassel: Was this like an aurora borealis that was causing this type of thing?
Goldsmith: No, it was a short. Now, I also wanted to reach Nauen and hear them, so I got up on the top of a high cliff near the City College of New York, near my laboratory, and tuned in to Nauen. I had the circuit running from Nauen to Sayville very nicely.
Van Tassel: This was a telegraph service?
Goldsmith: That was a telegraph service. There was no telephony.
Van Tassel: No telephony at that time, that's right.
Goldsmith: You wanted to talk about Hoyt Taylor. Hoyt Taylor was a professor at Grand Fork, North Dakota, and we had an arrangement that we were going to work together. I started sending, and he started sending along about ten or eleven o'clock at night on the days that we worked together. The signals were received at my laboratory and sent up to the Western Union telegraph office about a quarter of a mile away. This was, I think, one of the first, if not the very first, telephones. Because that was telephone.
Van Tassel: Yes, that would be telephone. And they transmitted your detected signal over wire. Was that the same office as on Hudson Street now?
Goldsmith: Oh, no, I don't know that.
Van Tassel: All right. Let us change the time and talk some about this new field that you enjoyed working in: television. You developed and pointed up the first way of having colored tubes. Can you tell us some of those stories?
Goldsmith: I became very interested in the next few years in radio telephony. I ran into real difficulties because there wasn't enough power available. You needed much more power for this sort of telegraphy. I hit on the idea that we had to have some way of picking up signals and getting them in color rather than black and white. The method that I used was rather an adaption, I believe, of something done earlier, namely telephony over wires. I got my signals from Schenectady and tuned them in, and I invented at that time the basic idea of colored radio telephony.
Van Tassel: The color was coded and you used the three primary colors.
Goldsmith: Red, green, and blue.
Van Tassel: It was your idea of locating those as separate entities on the face of the tube?
Goldsmith: That's right. They were zones or spots. An electron beam came from three guns. It started from the far end of the tube, went through the tube, through the focusing hole, and then out. Then it hit the desired spot and had to be very accurate.
Van Tassel: Yes. Accuracy was a very important part. I do believe you also, in connection with television, are responsible for or invented what is called remote control?
Goldsmith: That is right. I wanted to use a receiving set in the home and transfer and amplify the signal to a large speaker, amplify to a large speaker across the room. How to transfer it across the room? One way, of course, was just to go under the carpet.
Van Tassel: With wires.
Goldsmith: Which was, of course, very obnoxious to the lady of the house. Another way of doing it was to use a modulated tone. Well what kind of tone? If I used a very low pitched tone, it would be heard. If I used a very high pitched tone, it would be absorbed in the walls and actuate neighboring receivers. So I hit on tones in the tens of kilocycles. I modulated that, and used that for the transmission of the tone from the receiving set to the controls of the receiver.
Van Tassel: So you were using acoustical sound in the tens of kilocycles.
Goldsmith: That's right.
Van Tassel: By being acoustical, this limited the control to a specific room.
Goldsmith: And to the party which one wanted.
Dr. Taylor was sending signals after he joined the Navy across the Potomac and receiving in Virginia. He found that at the receiving station, the signals dropped in intensity very markedly every time a big size boat went through the beam. This gave him a clue: Here were radio signals which would were being absorbed or reflected.
Van Tassel: And from this point of view he began to expand?
Goldsmith: And he did expand over in Camden, New Jersey at the RCA Laboratory there, and work ahead with his radar concept.
Norton Watson Weiss was trying the same thing but he was sending signals vertically to the reflecting lamp and then back to the ground. So the two of them had competing concepts. I was always very much interested in two fields, not one. One of them was radio, and we have been talking about that, but I was also interested in medicine.
Back at that time, I actually sent short waves from the laboratory at Camden to a hospital about a mile or two away and they sent the picked-up signals back to the laboratory in Camden and it was used to produce color signals. The difficulties there were not overcome. It seems that there was a man over at the hospital who was being operated on, they thought he had cancer in the colon and they sent signals back and forth between the two locations, and seated next to me in the lecture room was a professor of electrical engineering in physics from Japan.
The signal was picked up in this hospital and sent to receiving equipment. It was so clear that it was possible for them to see at the other end and in the laboratory at Camden, that the signal was being received and being received clearly. This was in a tile room with several hundred physicians there. They could see the operation taking place; then there was a hush because they saw instantly he didn't have cancer, it was a benign tumor.
Van Tassel: In this way it was the first operation in which people at remote distance could view it and observe it through television.
Van Tassel: I am standing at the moment in Dr. Goldsmith's study. Looking on the wall at the numerous awards that he has received through his fine work. One outstanding award is signed by some fifty presidents of the Institute of Radio Engineers. In this award the following paragraph states their esteem for him. "As a token of our lasting esteem and affection for one who has thus so ably served with each and everyone of us during our terms of office, we the presidents of the IRE, speaking for those departed as well as for those present offer this inscribed testimonial as a remembrance of the Golden Anniversary Banquet of the IRE."
In other award, Dr. Goldsmith is made a fellow of the college of International Surgeons. Testifying to his real interests to the medical profession as well as the electrical and the electronics.
He was cited by radio pioneers in 1952, and given a special citation for outstanding service and contributions to radio. He was given a testimonial by the National Television Film Council. He was made a fellow of the American Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, which was organized in 1884. Dr. Goldsmith was a vice-president of the Pan-American Medical Association, and in that regard received awards and notations to that effect. There is a fine certificate in his office, showing the Institute of Electrical Engineers that he is a certified fellow and this is dated March of 1969 -- that's from England. He was also a fellow of the Australian Institute of Electrical Engineers. Dr. Goldsmith was awarded the first television tube off of the production line. He has this tube nicely arranged and organized in his study; it is on display here. The inscription above the tube states, "RCA Laboratory's Award for Outstanding Work in Research presented to Alfred Norton Goldsmith for his early recognition of the importance of a tri-color kinescope and for his concept of means for accomplishing it."
He is a senior member in the American Astronomical Society, as well as a fellow of the New York Academy of Science. He has been recognized and made a fellow of the Australian Institute of Radio Engineers, the American Rocket Society, the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures in Commerce in London have certified that Mr. Goldsmith has this day been elected a Benjamin Franklin Fellow of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures in Commerce. A member of the American Physical Society, honorary member of the Society for Motion Pictures and Television Engineers. And he also has an award for the recognition of services freely given in order to meet a national need through the development of American War Standards. "This certificate is awarded to Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith for the members of the War Committee of this association whose devoted labors have served government, management, and workers well. Their work has been singly honored by the Award Armed Forces and is gratefully acknowledged by the American Standards Association."
(Modified:21-Jul-00 09:19 AM)
IEEE Professional Communication Society
We recognize professional achievements and contributions to our profession and society by presenting these annual awards:
* The Alfred N. Goldsmith Award for Distinguished Contributions to Engineering Communication
* The Emily K. Schlesinger Award for Distinguished Service to the Professional Communication Society
* The Rudolph J. Joenk, Jr. Award for Best Paper in the IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
* The Ronald S. Blicq Award for Distinction in Technical Communication Education
The Alfred N. Goldsmith Award for Distinguished Contributions to Engineering Communication
The Alfred N. Goldsmith Award for Distinguished Contributions to Engineering Communication Award has been given by IEEE PCS since 1975. Dr. Goldsmith, who held a lifetime appointment as associate professor of electrical engineering at CCNY and was the first director of research, then vice president and general manager of engineering at RCA, was one of the founders of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) in 1912. From 1912 to 1954, he was editor of the IRE Proceedings. He was a sponsor and patron of the formation of the IRE Professional Group on Engineering Writing and Speech, forerunner of PCS.
Alfred N. Goldsmith Award for Distinguished Contributions to Engineering Communication winners:
2004 John Carrol, 2003 William Horton, 2002 Edward Tufte, 2001 Janice C. Redish
2000 JoAnn Hackos, 1999 Ulf-L Andersson, 1998 Stephanie Rosenbaum,
1997 Robert Krull, 1995 Cheryl Reimold, 1994 Michael Goodman
1993 Scott Sanders, 1992 William Kehoe, 1991 Deborah Flaherty Kizer
1990 Herbert Michaelson, 1989 Joan Nagle, 1988 Roger Grice
1987 Lacy Martin, 1986 James Hill, 1985 Daniel Rosich
1984 Lois Moore, 1983 Richard Robinson, 1982 No Award
1981 Bertrand Perlman, 1980 Rudy Joenk, 1979 Eric Openshaw Taylor
1978 Emily Schlesinger, 1977 John Phillips, 1976 Ron Blicq 1975 Jim Lufkin
Scanning the Past: A History of Electrical Engineering from the Past
Submitted by Dick Reiman, Historian
Copyright 1993 IEEE. Reprinted with permission from the IEEE publication, "Scanning the Past" which covers a reprint of an article appearing in the Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 81, No.8, August 1993.
Alfred N. Goldsmith
Sixty five years ago this month, the PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTE OF RADIO ENGINEERS (IRE) included a paper by Alfred N. Goldsmith concerning the need for greater cooperation between the IRE and the radio-electronics industry. At the time he was Chief Broadcast Engineer of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and also the President of the IRE.
In his paper, Goldsmith asserted that the field of radio communication had reached a point where more systematic development could be planned through closer cooperation between engineers and industry management. He pointed out that engineers who were IRE members benefited both from attending meetings and from reading PROCEEDINGS papers. He observed that what they gained became a valuable asset to the companies which employed them. He suggested that companies should do their part to facilitate this process by permitting timely release of new technical information and by encouraging publication of PROCEEDINGS papers by their research engineers. He stated that the information published became the "capital of the engineers of tomorrow." He characterized the IRE as an international professional society whose membership included most leading communications engineers from "Singapore to Saskatchewan and from Paris to Portland."
Goldsmith was born in New York City in 1887 and graduated from the College of the City of New York (CCNY) in 1907. In 1911 he received the Ph.D. degree from Columbia University where he studied under Michael I. Pupin. Goldsmith taught at CCNY from 1906 to 1923. Along with Robert Marriott and John V. L. Hogan, Goldsmith negotiated the merger of the Wireless Institute and the Society of Wireless Telegraph Engineers to form the IRE in 1912. He became the first Editor of the PROCEEDINGS, which began publication in 1913, and except for his year as IRE President, continued as Editor through 1954. Thus he devoted most of his working career to the IRE and the PROCEEDINGS which became the preeminent archival journal in communication and electronic engineering during his long tenure.
During World War I, Goldsmith became a Consultant on radio to the General Electric Company and also was in charge of radio schools for the Army Signal Corps and the Navy at CCNY. In 1918 he published a classic book entitled Radio Telephony which contained comprehensive technical information on radio systems in use or under development all over the world. In the introduction he wrote that "communication is the life blood of civilization, of international good will, and of progress." In a 1921 paper entitled " World Communication," he described "an ideal system" which "would be a continuously operative interference-free person-to-person network" which "should include every person of the globe" in a network combining wire and radio.
In 1918 Goldsmith became Research Director of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America and the following year was named Director of the Research Department of the newly founded RCA. He remained with RCA in various capacities including Vice President until 1933 when he became an independent consultant. He served on the National Television Systems Committee which recommended standards for commercial television adopted by the Federal Communications Commission in 1941. Goldsmith received the IRE Medal of Honor in 1941 and the Founders Award of the IRE in 1954. He was the first recipient of the Haraden Pratt Award of the IEEE in 1972. This award recognized him for his outstanding record of service to the Institute which "no one has performed so well, for so long a time, with such unswerving devotion to truth and excellence." He received 122 United States patents covering inventions mostly related to radio, television, and facsimile broadcasting and receiving systems. He attended his last meeting of the IEEE Board of Directors in March 1972 and died in St. Petersburg, FL, in July 1974. He left a generous bequest from his estate to the IEEE Foundation.
James E. Brittain
School of History, Technology, and Society, Georgia Institute of Technology
Carnegie Mellon University
Towering over the Junction Hollow ravine near Pittsburgh's Schenley Park, this one-time power plant now houses Carnegie Mellon University's engineering classrooms and laboratories. Originally called Machinery Hall, it was renamed for the institution's first president, Arthur A. Hamerschlag.
This Hometowne Collectible is made using a 3/4" thick wooden block with the image above applied using a 4 color process. and screen printing the descriptive copy onto the back
If you like this item, you may like items from these collections: Hometowne Collectibles: Carnegie Mellon University Series http://www.htowne.com/series/series32.asp
History of Carnegie Mellon
Since its founding in 1900 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, Carnegie Mellon University has been a pragmatic institution focused on finding real solutions to the problems facing society. Whether they attended Carnegie Technical Schools (1900-1912), Carnegie Institute of Technology (1912-1967) or Carnegie Mellon University (1967-present), students who walked the Pittsburgh campus became the innovators and doers of their generation who made a difference in the world around them.
Throughout its evolution from trade school to internationally prominent research university, Carnegie Mellon has remained true to three primary objectives: to deliver distinctive, first-quality education; to foster research, creativity and discovery; and to use the new knowledge created on campus to serve society.
In its earliest years, the Carnegie Technical Schools offered two- and three-year programs to train the sons and daughters of Pittsburgh's working class for employment in the region's growing industries. Under the direction of
Arthur A. Hamerschlag (1903-22) the school's first president, 12 professors and six administrators offered courses in the School of Science and Technology, the School of Fine and Applied Arts, the School of Apprentices and Journeymen, and the Margaret Morrison Carnegie School for Women.
The school's path to research prominence began as early as 1912, when it formally changed its name to Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT) and began offering four-year degrees. In 1916, the focus on research grew stronger when the Division of Applied Psychology developed rating scales for job placement that were eventually used to classify two million men for service in World War I. Soon research bureaus were organized on campus in coal mining, nuclear physics and applied chemistry. When it granted the nation's first undergraduate degree in drama in 1917, the institute began a tradition of leadership in the arts that would span the century.
CIT began transferring skills and knowledge to industry and government during the reign of President Thomas S. Baker (1922-35). The Metallurgical Advisory Board, founded in 1924 to organize research on applying physics and chemistry to metal production, represented CIT's first interdisciplinary initiative. Margaret Morrison Carnegie College and the departments of drama and architecture also prospered during the Baker administration, and the four schools of the Hamerschlag era officially became the colleges of Engineering, Fine Arts, Industries and Margaret Morrison.
Building on this firm foundation, President Robert E. Doherty (1936-50) introduced the Carnegie Plan for Professional Education, which would change the face of higher education across the nation. Initiated in 1939-40, the plan required engineering and science students to take a quarter of their courses in a new Humanistic and Social Relations sequence. The curriculum also focused on teaching students problem-solving techniques, a hallmark of the Carnegie Mellon educational experience today.
The Doherty administration also oversaw tremendous growth in CIT's research capability. Between 1936 and 1950, the number of graduate students grew from 36 to more than 260 and the research budget ballooned from $156,000 to $1 million. This growth continued into the presidency of J.C. Warner (1950-65) and was aided by the work of the institution's Computation Center, founded in 1956 to provide computing services to the campus.
Also during the Warner administration, the newly formed Graduate School of Industrial Administration, endowed by William Larimer Mellon, emerged as one of the best business schools in the nation. In 1965 a major grant from Richard K. Mellon aided the establishment of the Computer Science Department, which eventually evolved into the School of Computer Science.
Carnegie Tech had most elements of a university by the beginning of the H. Guyford Stever administration (1965-72). Its merger with the Mellon Institute in 1967 officially created Carnegie Mellon University and added a $60 million endowment, extensive research facilities and renowned research personnel to the institution.
Five years later, President Richard M. Cyert (1972-90) began a tenure characterized by unparalleled growth and development. The university's research budget soared from roughly $12 million annually in the early 1970s to more than $110 million in the late 1980s. The work of researchers in new fields like robotics and software engineering helped the university build on its reputation for innovation and practical problem solving.
President Cyert stressed strategic planning and comparative advantage, pursuing opportunities in areas where Carnegie Mellon could outdistance its competitors. One example of this approach was the introduction of the university's "Andrew" computing network in the mid-1980s. This pioneering project, which linked all computers and workstations on campus, set the standard for educational computing and established Carnegie Mellon as a leader in the use of technology in education and research.
President Robert Mehrabian (1990-97) emphasized Carnegie Mellon's traditional strengths while pushing initiatives for leadership in the 21st century. With the appointment of the university's first vice provost for education, Mehrabian placed renewed emphasis on the quality of undergraduate education. He also moved aggressively to complete the most ambitious campus building plan since the Warner era. The University Center, which opened in August 1996, and the Purnell Center for the Arts, completed in the fall of 1999, were keys to enhancing the quality of life on campus, another priority of the Mehrabian administration.
Confronted by shrinking governmental support of university research, President Mehrabian diversified the university's research agenda. He stressed the need to build strong relationships with the business world and established strong partnerships with the City of Pittsburgh. He worked closely with local community groups, leading an economic development initiative and collaborating with area K-12 schools.
On April 15, 1997, Jared L. Cohon, former dean of Yale University's School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, was elected by the Board of Trustees to succeed President Mehrabian.
During Cohon's presidency, Carnegie Mellon has continued its trajectory of innovation and growth. President Cohon leads a comprehensive strategic plan that aims to leverage the university's existing strengths to benefit society in the areas of biotechnology and life sciences, information and security technology, environmental science and practices, the fine arts and humanities.
The university is also dedicated to broadening and enhancing undergraduate education to allow students to explore other disciplines while maintaining a core focus in their primary subject. Realizing that today's graduates must understand international issues, Carnegie Mellon strives to expand its international offerings and increase its presence on a global scale. Increasing diversity and fostering the economic development of southwestern Pennsylvania are also top priorities.
Today, Carnegie Mellon is the only top 25 university founded in the 20th century. Its more than 8,000 undergraduate and graduate students pursue specialty programs that are consistently ranked among the best in the country and applications for undergraduate admission continue to rise annually.
The university has seven colleges and schools: The Carnegie Institute of Technology (engineering), the College of Fine Arts, the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, the Mellon College of Science, the David A. Tepper School of Business (formerly the Graduate School of Industrial Administration), the School of Computer Science and the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management. Carnegie Mellon also has campuses in Silicon Valley, California, and the Arabian Gulf nation of Qatar, and is expanding its international presence through many educational partnerships around the globe. By 2004, sponsored research grew to more than $280 million.
Despite many changes, the Carnegie Mellon University of 2005 has much in common with the Carnegie Technical Schools of 1900. The school still encourages great thinkers with varied backgrounds to collaborate toward practical goals. It preaches collaboration and innovation across traditional barriers of knowledge, producing extraordinary individuals who leave their mark on the world. Above all, Carnegie Mellon still maintains a commitment to students, practical research and education.
In his letter to the mayor of Pittsburgh establishing Carnegie Technical Schools, Andrew Carnegie wrote, "My heart is in the work." Words to live by for the faculty, staff and students of Carnegie Mellon University.
Carnegie Mellon Home
U.S. News & World Report Ranks ECE Among the Best Graduate Schools. Now, 7,500 alumni later, our undergraduate and graduate programs rank consistently among the top ten, and often among the top five, universities in the U.S. In 2000, U.S. News & World Report ranked our graduate computer engineering program number one in the country. We have established ourselves as one of the best, and we have done so within 100 years far less time than any of our peer institutions. This is made even more remarkable by the fact that we have had a graduate research program for only 58 years.
The department has had only nine department heads in its history; only seven after graduate research programs were established. This continuum of leadership has enabled the department to be agile enough to respond quickly to rapidly changing technologies.
A snowy landscape from March 1914.
Hard at work in Hamerschlag Hall.
Carnegie Mellon University celebrated its Centennial in the fall of 2000. Since Engineering Practice was one of the original disciplines to be taught in Andrew Carnegie's Technical Schools, our department shared this milestone.
Andrew Carnegie's second visit to the Carnegie Technical Schools, April 4, 1910. To his right is the school's director, Arthur Hamerschlag. Photo from University Archives.
The first students to attend the School of Applied Science and Technology were the sons of Pittsburgh's mill workers. They came to pursue a three-year diploma or a two-year certificate. Many did not have high school diplomas. No matter - Arthur Arton Hamerschlag, first director of the Schools, had no college degree.
ECE Department History Carnegie Mellon University celebrated its Centennial in the fall of 2000. Since Engineering Practice was one of the original disciplines to be taught in Andrew Carnegie's Technical Schools, our department shared this milestone.
The first students to attend the School of Applied Science and Technology were the sons of Pittsburgh's mill workers. They came to pursue a three-year diploma or a two-year certificate. Many did not have high school diplomas. No matter - Arthur Hamerschlag, first director of the Schools, had no college degree.
U.S. News & World Report Ranks ECE Among the Best Graduate Schools.
The department has had only nine department heads in its history; only seven after graduate research programs were established. This continuum of leadership has enabled the department to be agile enough to respond quickly to rapidly changing technologies.
Tech becomes a four-year degree granting college.
The 1940s Benjamin Richard Teare
Benjamin Richard Teare later to become our third department head, hired by President Doherty to develop a graduate research program.
The College of Engineering and Science is nationally known for its undergraduate programs, which have embraced Doherty's Carnegie Plan of Engineering Education. Most undergraduate students come from the Western Pennsylvania region and after graduation join the ranks of the prominent local industry or the new high-tech centers on the West Coast. Tech's reputation has begun to spread.
Teare becomes dean of engineering in 1952.
EE's graduate program gains solid reputation in magnetics and magnetic amplifiers (Leo Finzi), electromagnetics and microwaves; electrostatics and electrostatic precipitation (Gaylord Penney). Department becomes a center of fundamental understanding of physical phenomena under the leadership of Everard M. Williams, our fourth department head.
In mid-decade, the department begins to recruit faculty and graduate students in systems and controls, electronics and communications.
By the late 1950s, the department is one of the nation's leading centers in research in semiconductor devices through the work of faculty Donald Feucht, Angel Jordan (right), Richard Longini and Arthur Milnes (left). Milnes and Feucht win distinction for the department through their work in heterojunctions.
The Computation Center in Scaife Hall.
The trend towards interdisciplinary research begins. A joint program in systems and communication sciences, the foundation of the Computer Science department, draws from faculty and graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, Psychology and the Graduate School of Industrial Administration.
The Computation Center is established and housed in Scaife Hall. Staff begin teaching programming courses.
Angel Jordan as Department Head.
The first freshman programming course is elected by nearly half of the entering class of the decade.
EE faculty participate in the new interdisciplinary Biomedical Engineering program.
The Department of Computer Science was formed in 1966, growing out of the Systems and Communications Sciences program. It is funded by an ARPA grant to the legendary Newell, Perlis and Simon. The opportunity for interdisciplinary research with Computer Science acts as a magnet to attract even more outstanding faculty and graduate students to EE. Computer hardware visionary Gordon Bell is hired as a joint CS/EE appointment in 1967 and attracts many young faculty and grad students to the program. Significant course offerings developed in computer hardware, software and systems.
In 1969 Angel Jordan becomes the fifth department head.
In 1971 the College of Engineering and Science is divided into two colleges: Carnegie Institute of Technology (the college of engineering) and Mellon College of Science.
In 1972 the watchword of President Cyert's new administration is to "seek comparative advantages;" EE "builds upon areas of strength" in optical processing, computer-aided design, magnetics, and solid state electronics. Its reputation in these areas grows rapidly.
The decade was marked by selective recruitment of prominent faculty in areas such as magnetics (Mark Kryder) and computer-aided design (Steve Director, Ron Rohrer).
A 1975 national report now ranks the department eighth in the nation.
EE faculty played a prominent role in the formation of the Design Research Center, later to become the Engineering Design Research Center, an NSF Engineering Research Center.
The Center for Optical Data Processing is formed.
The Robotics Institute is formed in 1979 and its first graduate students come from EE.
Floyd Humphrey becomes the sixth department head in 1980.
The department begins construction of a 4000 sq. ft., class 100 cleanroom (left).
Steve Director becomes the seventh department head in 1982.
Department name is changed in 1983 to Electrical and Computer Engineering.
Kryder leads formation of the Magnetics Technology Center, the preeminent university-based research center of its kind in the U.S.
Steve Director leads formation of the SRC-CMU Research Center for Computer Aided Design, one of three in the country established by a sustaining grant from the Semiconductor Research Corporation.
The Design Research Center becomes the Engineering Design Research Center, one of the first NSF Engineering Research Center's in the country.
Sematech funds a Center of Excellence for Rapid Yield Learning (Andrzej Strojwas and Wojciech Maly) to aid the struggling U.S. semiconductor industry.
The Magnetics Technology Center becomes the Data Storage Systems Center (DSSC) and Carnegie Mellon becomes, at the time, the only university to house two NSF Engineering Research Centers.
The ECE Department leads the nation into a decade of undergraduate curriculum reform. A faculty group, calling themselves the Wipe-the-Slate-Clean Committee, does just that, and the department's undergraduate curriculum becomes a bellwether for engineering curriculum reform across the U.S.
The CAD Center evolves into the Center for Electronic Design Automation, one of the largest international centers for the creation of EDA software tools.
Both the EDRC and the DSSC Engineering Research Center contracts are renewed for another five years.
Director moves to the dean's office in 1991.
Robert White becomes ECE's eighth department head in 1993.
New faculty are hired and there is growth in computer engineering, multimedia and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).
Roberts Engineering Hall.
The DSSC moves to its new home with state-of-the-art laboratories when Roberts Engineering Hall comes on-line, the first new engineering building in 42 years.
In 1996, as ten years of NSF funding draws to a close for the EDRC, the Institute for Complex Engineered Systems is formed from its infrastructure with Pradeep Khosla as founding director.
Pradeep Khosla becomes ECE's ninth department head in 1999.
Emphasis is placed on computer architecture, embedded systems, broadband telecommunications, photonics, and computer security. Eleven new faculty are hired in these areas.
The Center for Silicon Systems Implementation (CSSI) is created out of the infrastructure of the Center for Design Automation with Larry Pileggi as founding director.
ECE is awarded a $19.4M MARCO Focus Center. Directed by Rob Rutenbar, the Center for Circuit & System Solutions (C2S2) is a nine university consortium that will focus on improvements for semiconductor product design.
The CMU-GM Laboratory is founded in January 2000 with a grant of $4M over an initial 3 year period from GM. T.E. (Ed) Schlesinger is named founding director.
In 2000, The Information Networking Institute (INI) moves to the ECE Department under the direction of Pradeep Khosla.
The CyLab is founded in 2001 and Pradeep Khosla is named as founding director. The CyLab receives a 5 year $35.5M grant from the Army Research Office.
B.V.K. Vijaya Kumar
In 2004, Khosla is named dean of engineering. Vijayakumar Bhagavatula becomes acting department head.
Dena Haritos Tsamitis
Schlesinger is appointed as director of the DSSC and Raj Rajkumar as director of the CMU-GM Lab.
Robert White, the DSSC’s former director, becomes an emeritus professor.
Dena Haritos Tsamitis becomes the new head of the INI.
In 2005, Schlesinger is appointed department head of ECE.
Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering
ECE is a department of the College of Engineering, Copyright 2005
"The yard outside this building was a popular hangout for goats back in the early 1900s, when the structure was known as Machinery Hall. The herd of goats belonged to immigrants who established a small settlement near the tracks of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad below the Campus.
"The goats and the settlement are gone, but this building remains one of the university's most recognized landmarks.
"It was orginally built in 1912 for an enlarged power plant, its dominant feature being its tower which contained the power plant's smokestack. The two deaprtments requiring the most service from the power plant--Mechanical and Electrical Engineering--were in Machinery Hall.
"The building was renamed in 1965, honoring Arthur A. Hamerschlag, first president of Carnegie Institute of Technology.
"Hamerschlag Hall houses the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and laboratories for the Department of Mechanical Engineering. It also contains engineering classrooms and a `clean room,' a sanitary lab that is part of the nationally noted Magnetics Technology Center."
-- Carnegie Mellon® Walking Tour
Last updated October 02, 1996 by Steven Douglas Cochran. Comments to firstname.lastname@example.org.
General James G. Harbord
Membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923. Presidente del Committee de Budget del IALA
ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA 1975, Volumine 13
HARBORD, James Guthrie (1866-1947), American general, who commanded U.S. troops in notable victories in World War I. He was born in Bloomington, Ill., on March 21, 1866, and enlisted in the Army in 1889. He rose through the ranks and in May 1917, soon after the United States entered World War I, Gen. John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, bound for service in France, named him his chief of staff. Promoted to brigadier general, he asked for active duty and commanded the 4th Marine Brigade that helped to win the desperate Battle of Belleau Wood in May 1918. In July, as a major general, he led the 2d Division in the victorious Second Battle of the Marne.
After the war Harbord became president of the Radio Corporation of America and chairman of the board in 1930. He died at Rye, N.Y., on Aug. 20, 1947, shortly after his retirement.
GENERAL JAMES G. HARBORD
By: MW Reynold S. Fajardo, PGM, GMH
James G. Harbord is no doubt one of the most colorful figures to grace the ranks of our early Scottish Rite Masons in the country. Born on March 21, 1866 at Bloomington, Illinois, he arrived in the Philippines at the turn of the century as a young captain, competent but unknown. When he left several years later he was a General, nationally recognized and respected.
Several authors have written about the exploits of Harbord in the Philippines and from them we picked up the various threads in his life.
From Jungle Patrol (The Story of the Philippine Constabulary) written by Vic Hurley, we read that Harbord was assigned at Zamboanga in 1903 as a P. C. District Commander. His important assignment was to transform the Muslims, who had recently been recruited into the Philippine Constabulary, into an efficient fighting force. Vic Hurley described the decision to recruit Muslims as:
"Probably the most splendidly audacious move in the entire history of the Constabulary. No one familiar with the Moros and Mindanao could appreciate the qualities of officership required to make this organization successful. The Moro is one of the finest individual fighters of any race of men, but he is not amenable to military discipline. It required a man of great quality of leadership to accomplish that result.
Harbord proved himself the man for the job. In no time he won the confidence of his men and whipped them into condition to take to the field.
Perhaps only one incident is necessary to show how Harbord gained the love and respect of his men. For religious reasons they refused to wear regulation hats because they had brims. Forthwith, Harbord modified the uniform to the convenience of the Koran. He issued to his men red fezzes with back tassels, an unabashed copy of the Shriner’s fez. So natty was the headgear his men wore it and even the officers adopted it as part of their uniform. Harbord’s men were extremely pleased and from that time on earning their loyalty was easy sailing. Yes, unknown to Harbord’s Muslim recruits, they were the first to wear the Shriner’s fez.
From another author- Stanley Karnow in his book "In Our Image" - we read that after his success in Mindanao, Harbord was assigned as the provincial commander of Tayabas. He succeeded another Mason, Col. Harry H. Bandholtz, who had just been promoted to take overall command of Southeastern Luzon as commander of the Constabulary. Both Harbord and Bandholtz had their headquarters at Lucena. Bandholtz at that time was the political potentate of Tayabas (now Quezon.) Arriving in the Philippines in 1900 as an infantry captain, Bandholtz was assigned to Tayabas where he set up town councils composed of Filipinos presumed loyal to the United States. Learning Spanish and some Tagalog, he befriended what he called the “better class” of Filipinos, that is, the region’s landowners, merchants, doctors and priests. He invited these Filipinos into his home and regularly attended local baptisms, weddings, funerals, and other rituals. A senior US official in Manila dismissed Bandholtz as “first, last and all the time a politician.” The elite of Tayabas, however, out of genuine admiration, elected him Governor of the province, the only American ever so honored in the Philippines.
One of the proteges of Bandholtz was Manuel L. Quezon who was born in a remote place called Baler, a struggling, ambitious young lawyer, who, however, was not a member of the political elite of the province. Bandholtz adopted Quezon, taught him English and as Quezon later wrote, “made me feel at home in his company.” Bandholtz backed Quezon in a major legal fight and promoted his career.
When Quezon gained enough prestige, he aimed for the governorship of Tayabas, due to be contested in an election scheduled in early 1906. Here is Karnow’s account of that election:
Governors were then chosen indirectly by an Electoral College of town’s officials who gathered in their provincial capital. The conclave usually degenerated into a litigious roll as rival factions challenged each other’s credentials. The verdict depended on a panel controlled by US officials, but their decision required care. They could not afford to alienate the region’s dynasties by endorsing an unpopular candidate. Nor were they themselves always unified.
Bandholtz, who had been reassigned to Manila late in 1905, ordered his successor, Colonel James G. Harbord, to promote Quezon. A shrewd soldier at forty, later to become chairman of the board of Radio Corporation of America, Harbord plunge into the political swirl. Quezon belonged to none of the leading clans and was opposed by the region’s American teachers, who resented his association with US military officers. Undaunted, Harbord sponsored his campaign and publicized a letter from Bandholtz, who had enormous prestige in the area, designating Quezon as his man. When the time came to convene town officials for a vote, Harbord mobilized US Army trucks to carry his supporters to the provincial capital. Quezon, winning by a narrow margin, now set his sights higher as the United States prepared to rise the Philippine political stage to national dimensions.
Harbord and Quezon became very close friends and Quezon constantly leaned on Harbord for advice and counsel. When Quezon wrote his autobiography, The Good Fight, he had this to say about his bosom friend.
"I must say that no American on those early days had as much confidence in forming my high conception of public duty or gave me a better idea of American manhood than the then Colonel Harbord. General Harbord is, in my opinion, one of the greatest men I have ever met.”
AS PHILIPPINE CONSTABULARY CHIEF
From still another author, former Governor General W. Cameron Forbes, we learn that Harbord eventually became the chief of the Philippine Constabulary. In his book, The Philippine Islands, Forbes narrates an interesting incident that took place when Harbord was acting chief of the Philippine Constabulary.
"On one occasion, when General Harbord was acting chief, an organization that had been working for months planned an insurrection. The night before the outbreak was to occur, six Filipinos were invited to assemble in General Harbord’s office, where they found six chairs placed in a row and upon which they were told to sit. He then informed them that an insurrection was planned to break out at ten thirty the following morning, and that it would be the duty of the Constabulary to put it down, that there would be some loss of life attached to the process, and that probably, a good many innocent lives would be lost because the real culprits in these movements usually acted under cover. He informed them that in this case, however, the police knew the real instigators of the insurrection, and that they would be the first men shot. With this information he opened the door and told them they could go out and start their insurrection if they wished. Six badly frightened conspirators spent the next ten and a half hours in suppressing a movement they had spent so many months in fomenting. No blood was split, no arrests made, no harm ensued."
Reading the foregoing account, one is tempted to wonder what would have happened to the several coup attempts against the Aquino administration had a man of the caliber of Harbord been at the helm of the Philippine Armed Forces.
AS A MASON
Harbord saw Masonic light in Council Grove Lodge No. 36 in Kansas in December 1898. During his assignment in Tayabas in 1905 he received the degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master and Royal Arch in Luzon Chapter No. 1 RAM. In December 1909, while assigned at Forth Leavenworth, Kansas, he joined the Scottish Rite and on his return to the Philippines became and active member of the Scottish Rite Lyceum of the Philippines. His name is prominently mentioned in the local Scottish Rite Yearbooks for 1912 and 1913.
In William R. Denslow’s famous book, 10,000 Famous Freemasons, Volume II, he states that Harbord fought in France during the First World War and in 1919 was promoted to Major General. In 1923, he became the president of Radio Corporation of America, one of the biggest corporations in the United States. He served as president of RCA up to 1930 until he was chosen chairman of the board, a position he occupied up to 1947.
On August 20, 1947, he passed on to the next shore.
James G. Harbord
James G. Harbord’s first visit to the birth place of Jeanne D’Arc occured on 1 August 1917 when he was a lieutenant colonel and General John Pershing’s Chief of Staff. He, General Pershing, and Captain George S. Patton, while scouting possible locations for the A.E.F. headquarters, took time for a brief visit of homage to the birthplace of the "Maid of France". The following excerpt is from Harbord’s memoirs:
"Late that afternoon, (1 Aug 1917), enroute to Mirecourt, where General de Castelnau had his headquarters, we stopped for a moment in the ancient village of Domremy, birthplace of Jeanne d’Arc, and where she lived her early years. The Maid of Orleans was born nearly a century before American was discovered and Columbus brought us into the World War. Her little Lorraine home is still shown to visitors, including the tiny wall cupboard where she hung her clothes. Not far away is the church where Jeanne worshipped and near which she heard the voices in the bushes that sent her forth to lead the king’s armies. For centuries she was denied canonization by the Church rule that the ashes must exist somewhere to be canonized, and hers had been flung to the breezes after her cruel death at Rouen. The English had been burning witches a long time before our Puritan settlers of New England hanged a few at Salem. The complicity for the death of the fair Maid seems evenly divided between the Holy Mother Church and the English High Command in France at the time. The little house is covered with bronze plates and marble images of the gallant girl. The poor thing of a king whom she served is for us only ‘a golden line in chronicles gray with age’, but Jeanne is a new Saint in the Calendar. Asked what she wished for reward, as she led his troops in victory and Charles was crowned at Rheims, she asked only that her village of Domremy might be forever free from taxes. The king so ordered, and for over three hundred years the royal tax-gatherers entered in their books opposite the name of Domremy the words ‘La Pucelle’ and passed her village by. The villagers of Domremy began paying taxes again when the Republic came in and are doing so still."
LtCol Harbord’s second visit to Domremy occured in early April of 1918, when Harbord was one of a small party accompanying the American Secretary of War Newton Baker on a tour of the American front line. On the final day of the tour, after a review late in the day of two American battalions at Treveray, on the return drive to Chaumont, the Secretary’s party stopped briefly "at Domremy-la-Pucelle to do homage to the Maid of Orleans".
In May of 1918 Harbord, now a brigadier general, was given command of the 4th Brigade of Marines of the Second Division, and commanded them in the pivotal battle of Belleau Wood during June of 1918, where the German drive on Paris was brought to a standstill. On July 15th, Harbord assumed command of the entire Second Division, and immediately led the division at Soissons, where the tide against the Germans was conclusively turned. Immediately after this battle, General Pershing placed Harbord in command of the Service of Supplies, which position he held until the Armistice.
BrigGen Harbord had occasion again to reflect on the life of Jeanne D’Arc when he visited the ruins of Chinon on the Sunday before the Armistice. He recorded in his diary: "All the earlier Plantagenets loved Chinon. They were a sturdy lot, those kings named after the flaxen broom corn which grows in Maine and Anjou. They built the dikes of the Loire which still protect its valley. The Crusader, Richard Coeur de Lion, and John, of Magna Charta fame, were sons of Henry II, the principal builder of Chinon in its prime. Later it fell into French possession and became the home of French royalties. Charles VII was wasting his time there playing with little dogs and listening to the flattery of courtiers while the British held practically everything in France norht of the Loire, when Jeanne d’Arc heard the voices in the woods of Domremy, and came riding to Chinon to offer her services to the uncrowned king. Chinon has been a ruin for nearly two hundred years, but one still sees the walls of the room where Jeanne was received by the Dauphin, as she always styled Charles until she had him crowned at Rheims. He was in the midst of a group of young men with one of them wearing the royal insignia and in the place royalty should have occupied, when the Maid was brought in. She passed the youth in the royal place and went straightway and knelt before Charles, whom she had never seen. The tower where the girl slept while at Chinon is still intact; but the chapel where she prayed is but a spot, the walls having long since disappeared. In the rooms next to where she saw the Dauphin are window seats looking out over the fairest stretch of plain and woodland ever seen by king, with the silver of the sparkling Vienne flowing at the foot of the hill hundreds of feet below. The view is superb. Chinon sits like a crown on a wooded hill with vistas in both directions of the swift-flowing Vienne. Parts of the old Roman wall on one side are still visible. Several towers stand intact but Chinon as a whole is a ruin, a memory and a monument to the fleeting nature of earthly glory."
On the following day Harbord received word that the Armistice had been signed by Germany.
Sources: Harbord, Major General James G., LEAVES FROM A WAR DIARY (NY: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1931), and also Harbord’s THE AMERICAN ARMY IN FRANCE, (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1936).
"After the penance comes the
absolution. You will find
peace only at the lance's
point. Son of France, go,
go, go! I will help you.
Go hardily to Verdun!"
The Broken Soldier
and the Maid of France
by Henry Van Dyke
Frederick Paul Keppel Membro del gruppo que precedeva le IALA in 1923
ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA, 1975, VOLUMINE 16
KEPPEL, Frederick Paul
American educator; b. Staten Island, N.Y., July 2, 1875; d. New York City, Sept. 9, 1943. He was educated at Columbia University, from which he graduated with an A.B. degree in 1898. In 1900 he became assistant secretary of that institution, and secretary two years later; and in 1910, at the age of 35, he was made dean of the College. He held this position until 1918. From 1908 to 1918 he was secretary of the American Association for International Conciliation, and for the following year acted as third assistant secretary of war. During 1919-1920 he served as director of foreign operations for the American Red Cross; and in 1920-1922 he was commissioner for the United States International Chamber of Commerce. From 1923 to 1941 he was president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York. His publications included The Undergraduate and His College (1917), Education for Adults (1926), The Foundation (1930), and Philanthropy and Learning (1936).
Frederick Paul Keppel Papers [ca. 1880]-1943.
Phys. Desc: ca. 38,000 items (71 boxes)
Call Number: Ms Coll/Keppel, F.P.
Location: Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
Subjects: Columbia College (New York, N.Y.)--Administration.; Carnegie Corporation of New York.; Century Club.; Columbia University Club.; United States.--War Dept.; Baker, Newton Diehl, 1871-1937.; United States--Commerce.; United States--Politics and government--20th century.; United States--Social life and customs.; New York (N.Y.)--Social life and customs.; Education--United States.; Arts--United States.; College administrators.; Executives.; Government executives. Creator: Keppel, Frederick P. (Frederick Paul), 1875-1943.
Dean of Columbia College, 1910-1918. Columbia University A.B., 1898, Litt.D., 1929.
Scope and Contents
Correspondence, memoranda, and legal and financial documents of Keppel. The files deal largely with Keppel's personal and professional life during his tenure as President of the Carnegie Corporation, and also include some files from his years as Newton D. Baker's Third Assistant Secretary of War, and as Dean of Columbia College. There are extensive files of correspondence from and to Keppel's parents and children, as well as files concerning his activities in organizations such as the Century and Columbia University Clubs. The letters from friends and business associates concern American education, politics, business, and cultural life, particularly in the New York metropolitan area, from 1900 to 1943. LWEB bottom navigation bar
© Columbia University Libraries
THE AMERICAN DISCOVERY OF ALCOHOLISM, 1933-1939
From the Carnegie Grant to "Bowman's Compromise," October 1938-December 1939
Over the course of the fifteen-month period from October 1938 to the end of 1939 the RCPA's project list grew to 35 studies, but the group made discouragingly little headway in securing funding. At the group's second annual meeting--in September 1939--just three successes could be reported: two small and one large grant had been received (*1). The large grant occupies an historic place in the history of the modern alcoholism movement and an account of its winning will be provided in a moment. By that same September, however, Karl Bowman and a special financial committee were struggling to figure out how to make use of Wet offers of financial support. Their proposal for doing so, which the RCPA would adopt in October 1939, would ideally turn the group's research attentions for the first time exclusively to projects addressing alcoholism as opposed to the larger array of alcohol-related issues that had formerly comprised the group's approved study lists. All proposed projects not addressing some aspect of alcoholism would be dropped from the approved list.
The Carnegie Corporation was one of several foundations the RCPA group turned to after Rockefeller's rejection. In this case the group would prove successful in winning a $25,000 grant to review the literature on alcohol's effects on man, which grant in turn would bring E.M. Jellinek into the field and, in effect, start the movement's ball rolling. The grant request, after more than a year of Carnegie ambivalence, was finally approved on 23 May 39, and was the by-now two-year old RCPA's first substantial victory in its exhausting grant-getting enterprise.
By the spring of 1938 the Carnegie Corporation president, Frederick P. Keppel, had served for 15 years in that post, and, according to Nielsen (1972, p. 36), had run the organization "largely as a one-man show" but nevertheless wielding power with openness and a spirit of personal accessibility. As it happens, Keppel commissioned Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma in 1938, and the foreword he wrote for Myrdal's two-volume work could probably have echoed his justification for proffering support to the RCPA as well. Therein, Keppel "cautiously justified" the foundation's involvement with contemporary social issues in terms that were thoroughly congruent with the spirit of the RCPA's envisioned enterprise.
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Moore first contacted Keppel in mid-March 1938, at which time Keppel gave Moore "no assurances of great interest, but did make it clear that he would not be afraid of the problem because it is at present an unpopular one" (Moore to Wilbur, 17 Mar 38, LMA). Moore asked Wilbur if he were willing to write to Keppel "merely emphasizing that we are dealing with a major social problem that is likely to grow more important during the next decade and that in your judgment we have brought together a competent group for the purpose?" Wilbur promptly did so, writing Keppel of the RCPA as a group "some of us have set up in the hope that a thorough scientific study of the alcohol question can be made without prejudice and without partisanship" (Wilbur to Keppel, 19 Mar 38, CCA).
As luck would have it, Keppel soon left for Europe, and did not take up the RCPA's request immediately (Moore to Wilbur, 30 Mar 38). Contact with Keppel and Carnegie would not resume until late October, more than six months later, and after the group had been formally presented in the New York Times and Science reports. In late October Keppel's files show his receipt of two letters of encouragement from RCPA Scientific Committee members, one from Luther C. Gulick and the other from Hans T. Clarke (*2). Both letters urged Keppel's positive response to the RCPA at a planned forthcoming meeting on 27 October 1938, and both letters are interesting for the rhetorical touchstones they employed to engage Keppel's interest and support.
Gulick asked Keppel to give the group "some strong support." He noted that Dr. Livingston Farrand (president of Cornell) might accept the group's presidency, and Dr. James R. Angell (president of Yale, and formerly president of the Carnegie Corporation) "has become increasingly interested" in the group. "Numerous individuals with money instead of brains have shown no interest," Gulick noted, expressing an indirect affirmation that the wisdom of the foundation system must be available for worthwhile but unpopular projects such as this to receive support in the society. "If we were working for or against prohibition," Gulick continued, "we might get their support. But unbiased research does not seem to appeal to their emotions." Gulick's letter also noted, "For financial support, our experience of the past few weeks seems to indicate that we must look to the foundations." Gulick's closing paragraph emphasized the RCPA's strongest selling point--namely, its remarkably prestigious roster of American scientists. "I doubt whether ever again as distinguised a group can be brought together for this purpose," he noted (Gulick to Keppel, 26 Oct 38, CCA). Hans T. Clarke's letter, like Gulick's, stressed the reputations and interests of people involved with the RCPA. Clarke cited the late Earl B. McKinley's great interest, the involvement of Harry Moore, Karl Bowman, and himself. He also noted the existence of Anton J. Carlson's similarly oriented group at Chicago and that group's prospective merger with the RCPA, clearing the field of competitors (Clarke to Keppel, 25 Oct 38, CCA).
Neither Keppel's nor Wilbur's files made record of the 27 October 1938 meeting with RCPA members, if it was actually held. The next record appearing in Keppel's files is dated almost two months later (20 Dec 38)--that being a cryptic account of an interview involvidng Keppel and RCPA representatives Luther Gulick, Hans Clarke, and Albert Poffenberger (*3). The roster of the RCPA's now two dozen studies was presented to Keppel and discussed collectively. The account reports that the RCPA group "was ready to disprove the general impression that enough is already known about alcohol and its effects" (Minute, 20 Dec 38, CCA). Interestingly, Bowman noted that he thought Robert A. Fleming, a former Rockefeller man, would be a good project leader for study No. 1, the literature review (*4). "Much of the discussion," the minutes noted, was devoted to discussing what the Council really meant by its secondary objective 'education.' They say they mean neither propaganda nor legislation, but they appear to hesitate when FPK suggested the British term 'vulgarization' (Carnegie Minutes, 20 Dec 38, CCA).
Moore wrote Wilbur of this meeting three days later, noting that Keppel "seems to have been favorably impressed and may give us $25,000 for Study No. 1" (Moore to Wilbur, 23 Dec 38, LMA). Keppel's files show that a more detailed, three-page, single-spaced outline of Study No. 1 was received by the Carnegie Corporation in mid-January 1939. That document reveals, I believe, how the RCPA's Study No. 1 had by then become the repository and reflection of both the original SCNCA group's efforts to gather together the authoritative scientific knowledge on alcohol and Albert Barrows' good advice that any large scientific undertaking ought to begin with an expert and searching examination of the available literature. Under the heading of the "Value of the survey," the following passage provides a clear image of the conjunction of these two influences:
While a great deal of research work has been done on alcohol and while a large number of books and pamphlets have been published for popular consumption, there probably has never been a time when the general public has been so much in doubt as the truth regarding the effects of alcohol on the individual....
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On 2 February 1939 Poffenberger wrote Keppel offering a "personal opinion" on the RCPA and its program, a letter which reveals that Moore himself and his handling of the group's early history was not viewed with pleasure by all observers. Poffenberger began by dismissing the Times ("Scientists Launch," 1938) editorial's notion that enough was already known about alcohol by citing the case of drunk driving, where very little was in fact known with certainty. This lack of knowledge derived, he wrote, from the absence of "systematic, well-planned, long-term and unprejudiced attack." The RCPA offered such a prospect, but it had, according to Poffenberger,
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Keppel had apparently asked Poffenberger on an earlier occasion whether the RCPA was "just a scheme for getting financial support for what people are already doing and probably would do anyway." Poffenberger responded that "that is not the case" and gave reasons why it might appear to have been so. Poffenberger noted that Rockefeller's demand that others support the group first had led the RCPA to emphasize "certain projects at Bellevue and at the New York Psychiatric particularly which were about to be initiated and for which some support was available or in sight were listed [on the group's schedule of projects]" (Poffenberger to Keppel, 2 Feb 39, p. 2, CCA).
- - -
It was this long-range research plan, Poffenberger asserted, that defined the RCPA's potential contribution to the alcohol territory. He closed again emphasizing the newly scientific character and stewardship of the group:
I must repeat that I was skeptical of the original set-up (which has been changed) and am still critical. But I have confidence in the hard-headedness of the scientific committee which has taken active control. Promoters and 'savers of the world' now play a minor role (Poffenberger to Keppel, 2 Feb 39, p. 2, CCA).
Still the process dragged on. In late March Keppel's file indicated that he exchanged correspondence on the RCPA with Vannevar Bush, President of the Carnegie Corporation's sister institution, the Carnegie Institution in Washington, D.C. Keppel apparently sought Bush's impression of the group as well as an indication whether the Washington organization might be in a position to offer the RCPA support. Bush, however, noted that he saw "no way in which it links in especially well with the work of the Institution," though he suggested that such a conclusion should not affect the RCPA's chances with Keppel's Corporation (Bush to Keppel, 20 Mar 39, CCA). In subsequent correspondence Bush noticed that an illustration in the RCPA's brochure--showing a large group of formally-attired guests raising a toast--had been presented in such a way as to leave the impression that "there is something sinful about drinking a toast in this manner." In Bush's view, this misstep suggested that even an effort so deliberately intent upon addressing its subject with "no preconceived notions and on a basis of finding out well established scientific facts and relationships" still nevertheless could easily fall prey to tacit biases. "I suppose it is too much to expect a really scientific, dispassionate, and disinterested entry into his highly controversial field," Bush concluded, "but I wish very much that it could be obtained" (Bush to Keppel, 21 Mar 39, CCA).
Finally, on 15 May 39 Keppel and the Carnegie Corporation received a fully articulated proposal for Study No. 1--accompanied by a cover letter (signed by Moulton, Bowman and Clarke), a newly drafted proposal, a budget, an RCPA membership roster, and an organization/personnel chart. Jolliffe was presented at the proposed study's director, and his qualifications were described as follows:
Dr. Jolliffe is Chief of the Medical Service of the Psychiatric Division of Bellevue Hosptial. In 1937, he conducted a study on the etiology and treatment of alcoholism and the alcoholic psychoses in Europe, with the aid of a special grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. In connection with this study he visited approximately eleven countries. His writings in the field of medicine include 37 titles. Approximately 24 of these are in the general field of alcohol. While they are all collaborations, in each case he is the senior author (Moulton, Bowman, and Clarke to Keppel, 15 May 39, CCA).
CHALLENGING THE SYSTEM: THE ADULT EDUCATION MOVEMENT AND THE EDUCATIONAL BUREAUCRACY OF THE 1920s
Amy D. Rose
The Carnegie Corporation entered the discussion on Americanization with a study of the process by which individuals became assimilated. The study, commissioned in 1918 and carried out over the following years, went beyond a study of Americanization classes to encompass an examination of the family, the community, the arts, the media, and other interactions between American and immigrant life in order to uncover which forces encouraged the process and which ones acted negatively.(4) In many ways, the Americanization study stands as a prototype for future Carnegie interest in the education of adults. In its search for the educative aspects of all forms of social interaction, the study went far beyond the strictures normally associated with educational agencies.
In the 1920s the Carnegie Corporation developed a more thorough and systematic policy towards adult education. In 1924 the foundation began to explore the possibility of funding projects in adult education and, in fact, establishing it as a priority area for future grants. Because of a policy mandated by its new President, Frederick P. Keppel, the Corporation set out to consult with leading educators of adults before embarking in its new direction. After a series of meetings held throughout the country, the AAAE was founded in 1926 by a group of adult educators with the blessing of the Carnegie Corporation. While ostensibly an independent organization, it was headed by Morse Cartwright, Keppel's former assistant, and had as its clear purpose the task of making funding recommendations to the Corporation about adult education projects.(5)
While the development of this organization has usually been tied to professionalizing imperatives within the field itself, it is clear that the Carnegie Corporation had other concerns. While some of these related to internal organizational and fiscal pressures, much of the Carnegie focus centered on dissatisfaction with the current system of education within the United States. Adult education was seen as a movement which could rectify some of the problems and shift the educational system away from an ever-increasing bureaucratic structure.
THE CRITIQUE OF SCHOOLING
A principal dynamic behind the growth of adult education in the 1920s was a criticism of the expanded educational systems of the postwar period. While criticism of the schools came from various quarters, some of the strongest came from those who later advocated the movement for adult education. Henry Pritchett, President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and Keppel's predecessor as Acting President of the Carnegie Corporation, emerged as a sharp critic of the educational system of the postwar period. Pritchett's views are important because as Acting President he laid the foundation for the eventual Carnegie interest in adult education. Since the background of the Carnegie interest in adult education has not been adequately explored, many of the reasons for this interest have become obscured.
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NOTES 25. Frederick P. Keppel, "Adult Education, Today and Tomorrow," in Education for Adults and Other Essays (New York: Columbia University Press, 1926), 38.
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